It is ture that in India, especially civil suits take years to end its proceedings, but on a close analysis it can be identified that one of the main reasons for this is the huge amounts of suits being filed everyday. Such a large number of cases will result in congestion and thus, leads to pendecy of the suits.
Such a delay, as understood by the Law Commission of India (Report 245) is due to infrastuctural lacking i.e, a smaller number of courts and judges in existance in comparison with the plethora of cases. The Supreme Court in the case of Imtiyaz Ahmad v. Province of U.P (AIR SC 2012 642) also expressed the need for making extra courts.
In addition to this, the system of Appeal irrespctive of the limitation period is also extremely complicated and lengthy in nature which leads to delay in proceedings.
With respect to adjournments as addressed by you, it is clear that it eads to delay. But according to Order XVII of the CPC, adjournmnets are to be granted in valid circumsatnces, that is beyond the control of the parties. Further as per the same provision adjounments can only be granted 3 times to the parties. The issues is in the proper application of this provision under the CPC.
Also, according to Order IX of the CPC deals with non- appearance of the Parties and such default may have the effect of the dismissal of the suit or ex- parte decision by courts.
It would be helpful to have more stringent application of the law for reducing the pendancy before the courts. It is really unfortunate, but in most cases if there was a valid adjournment also, due to the large number of cases the next possible availability of date would be 6 months down the lane which leads to further delay.
I hope this was helpful .