In India, every religion has personal laws concerned with deciding on factors such as marriage, divorce, custody of children, maintenance for divorced women, guardianship, adoption, succession, and inheritance.
Different religions have different means and methods to deal with these factors.
Personal laws evolved over time with their origin to be traced from conventions and traditions prevalent in the religions they belong to.
These factors under the ambit of respective personal laws are civil in nature but have a huge bearing on the society as a whole. While there are common laws governing the actions in criminal nature of every citizen there arose a question on why there weren’t common laws governing certain important civil factors under the purview of personal laws.
This debate rose to relevance as light was shed on the fact that many personal laws were inconsistent with the changing times, wherein some even impractical and at times even unfair to a particular section of people to a certain extent.
Its also to be comprehended that personal laws can even be incoherent with certain fundamental rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution, challenging and contradicting principles of equality, liberty, and justice.
Implementing a uniform civil code would deal with these issues by ensuring that these laws that were earlier under the ambit of personal laws would now be treated like common laws for all citizens irrespective of what religion they belong to.
A common ground dealing with these issues would hence ensure that certain outdated conventions under the disguise of personal laws that are incoherent to certain fundamental principles in the constitution can be curbed or eliminated.
In simpler terms single law replacing all the personal laws applicable to every single person no matter what religion he/she practices is the very essence of a Uniform Civil Code.
It has also been a part of The Directive Principles of state policy in the Indian Constitution in the form of Article 44. The objective of Article 44 of the Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution was to acknowledge and deal with the prevalent discrimination against certain vulnerable sections of the society and harmonize diverse cultural groups across the country.