I add for clarity:
Foreign court divorce, as per local laws of that country, are recognized by Indian courts only when the parties have subjected themselves to the jurisdiction of that court, the order is on merit of the case as per local laws, or if one of the parties has obtained any relief from the other party from a court in that country.
A party having chosen a judicial forum as of competent jurisdiction, can not resile and approach another court in any country for same relief. Hence aswer to query no. 1 is : Res judicata is applicable.
Damages: Forget it. Extremely difficult in India.
Limitation: You need not bother about the wife's case in India on the issue of limitation. There is limitation in your case as 'living apart' is more than one year and is a continuing matrimonial infraction.
You can file an RCR case. It will then be incumbent on you to prove that walking out of matrimonial home by the wife is not due to any act of infraction as per Sec.13 of the HM Act, on your part.
On the other hand, if you contest the case filed by her in India, on grounds of res judicata alone, you may be successful. You can also move an application under Order 7 Rukle 11 of the CPC, if so advised by your lawyer. after dismissal of the suit, if you file RCR case, you will be successful.
Even after an RCR decree there is no compulsion for the wife to rejoin you. The only remedy then will be for you to seek divorce, for which you are not interested.
Under the circumstances, you can only have the satisfaction of having defeated your wife in legal proceedings and keeping the marriage legally alive in india.