The problem of “Prostitution” an Indian perspective
A prostitute is a person, "who allows her body to be used for lewd purposes in return for payment". Prostitution is the sale of sexual services, such as oral sex or sexual intercourse, for money. Prostitution the word itself speaks about the plight of a women .It is not a problem which exists in
This ban was reinforced again in 1980s but the law is broken every day. Poverty and ‘Untouchablity’ contribute to the persistence of this terrible practice. Reference to dancing girls in temples is found in Kalidasa's "Meghadhoot". The popularity of devadasis seems to have reached its pinnacle around 10th and 11th century CE. The rise and fall in the status of devadasis can be seen to be running parallel to the rise and fall of Hindu temples. The devdasi system was mostly prevalent in southern
The prostitution continued from ancient and medieval india and has taken a more gigantic outlook in modern india, the devdasi system still continues ,according to a report of National Human Rights Commission of the Government of India,” after initiation as devadasis, women migrate either to nearby towns or other far-off cities to practise prostitution”. The practice of dedicating devadasis was declared illegal by the Government of Karnataka in 1982 and the Government of Andhra Pradesh in 1988. However the practice is still prevalent in around 10 districts of north Karnataka and 14 districts in Andhra Pradesh. Districts bordering
Causes of prostitution:
· Ill treatment by parents.
· Bad company.
· Family prostitutes.
· Social customs.
· inability to arrange marriage,
· Lack of sex education, media.
· Prior incest and rape.
· Early marriage and desertion.
· Lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution.
· Economic causes include poverty and economic distress.
· Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection.
Notorious red light districts of
· Street prostitutes
· Bar dancers
· Call girls
· Religious prostitutes
· Escort girls
· Road side brothel
· Child prostitutes
· Fricatrice prostitutes
· Gimmick prostitutes
· Beat prostitutes
Every hour, four women and girls in
Prostitution is a problem in itself and child prostitution is making it more complex. Quoting a study on 'Girls/Women in prostitution in
Laws related to prostitution in
Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girl Act -1956
Prevention of Immoral Traffic Act-1956
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act-1956
The Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act, 1956 ("ITPA"), the main statute dealing with sex work in India, does not criminalise prostitution or prostitutes per se, but mostly punishes acts by third parties facilitating prostitution like brothel keeping, living off earnings and procuring, even where sex work is not coerced.
Section3. Punishment for keeping a brothel or allowing premises to be used as a brothel.
(1) Any person who keeps or manages, or acts or assists in the keeping or management of, a brothel, shall be punishable on first conviction with rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than one year and not more than three years and also with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees and in the event of a second or subsequent to conviction with rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than two years and not more than five years and also with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees.
(2) A any person who, -
(a) Being the tenant, lessee, occupier or person in charge of any premises, uses, or knowingly allows any other person to use, such premises or any part thereof as a brothel, or
(b) Being the owner, lessor or landlord of any premises or the agent of such owner, lessor or landlord, lets the same or any part thereof with the knowledge that the same or any part thereof is intended to be used as a brothel, or is willfully a party to the use of such premises or any part thereof as a brothel, shall be punishable on first conviction with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years and with fine which fine which may extend to two thousand rupees and in the event of a second or subsequent conviction, with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and also with fine.
(2-A) For the purposes of sub-section (2), it shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, that any person referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) of that subsection, is knowingly allowing the premises or any part thereof to be used as a brothel or, as the case may be, has knowledge that the premises or any part thereof are being used as a brothel, if, -
(a) A report is published in a newspaper having circulation in the area in which such person resides to the effect that the premises or any part thereof have been found to be used for prostitution as a result of a search made under this Act; or
(b) A copy of the list of all things found during the search referred to in clause (a) is given to such person.
Section5. Procuring, inducing or taking person for the sake of prostitution.
(1) Any person who-
(a) Procures or attempts to procure a person whether with or without his/her consent, for the purpose of prostitution; or
(b) Induces a person to go from any place, with the intent that he/she may for the purpose of prostitution become the inmate of, or frequent, a brothel; or
(c) Takes or attempts to take a person or causes a person to be taken, from one place to another with a view to his/her carrying on, or being brought up to carry on prostitution; or
(d) Causes or induces a person to carry on prostitution; shall be punishable on conviction with rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than three years and not more than seven years and also with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, and if any offence under this sub-section is committed against the will of any person, the punishment of imprisonment for a term of seven years shall extend to imprisonment for a term of fourteen years:
Provided that if the person in respect of whom an offence committed under this sub-section, -
(i) Is a child, the punishment provided under this sub-section shall extend to rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than seven years but may extend to life; and
(ii) Is a minor; the punishment provided under this sub-section shall extend to rigorous imprisonment for a term of not less than seven years and not more than fourteen years.
So it can be seen that both the sections namely section 3 and section 5 punishes only the acts of the 3rd party and same does the other sections in the Act and so new legislation shall be passed as to punish the client who are visiting the prostitutes.
The prostitution leads to many health problems for the prostitutes like:
· Cervical cancer
· Traumatic brain injury
· Psychological disorders
In a country like
Meena was married off at 12. Soon after she was taken to
Steps that should be taken in order to fight with prostitution:
# Formal education should be made available to those victims who are still within the school going age, while non-formal education should be made accessible to adults
# The Central and State Governments in partnership with non-governmental organizations should provide gender sensitive market driven vocational training to all those rescued victims who are not interested in education
# Rehabilitation and reintegration of rescued victims being a long-term Recruitment of adequate number of trained counsellors and social workers in institutions/homes run by the government independently or in collaboration with non-governmental organizations
# Awareness generation and legal literacy on economic rights, particularly for women and adolescent girls should be taken up.
# Adequate publicity, through print and electronic media including child lines and women help lines about the problem of those who have been forced into prostitution.
# Culturally sanctioned practices like the system of devadasis, jogins, bhavins, etc. which provides a pretext for prostitution should be addressed suitably.
Some people opine that prostitution shall be made legal in
Legalization of prostitution and the sex industry will stop sex trafficking.
Legalization of prostitution will control the sex industry.
Legalization of prostitution will decrease clandestine, hidden, illegal and street prostitution.
Legalization of prostitution will protect the women in prostitution as they will have rights.
Women in systems of Prostitution want the sex industry legalized as they are the one who suffers the most as they don’t have any rights.
Legalization of prostitution will promote women's health as they can have easy access to medical facilities which they don’t have when it is illegal.
Recognizing prostitution as an economic activity, thus enabling women in
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