Jurisdiction of supreme court


I don't quite understand what is original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Please explain it and tell me what all kinds of disputes come under it?
 
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The Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction.

The original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between

  1. the Government of India and one or more States
  2. the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more States on the other
  3. two or more States,
    if and insofar as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or of fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends.
    In addition, Article 32 of the Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders, or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari to enforce them. The Supreme Court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one State High Court to another State High Court or from a Court subordinate to another State High Court. The Supreme Court, if satisfied that cases involving the same or substantially the same questions of law are pending before it and one or more High Courts or before two or more High Courts and that such questions are substantial questions of general importance, may withdraw a case or cases pending before the High Court or High Courts and dispose of all such cases itself. Under the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, International Commercial Arbitration can also be initiated in the Supreme Court.
 
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Jurisdiction basically refers to the extent of judicial authority  any particular legal body has in order to fulfil its defined responsibility.

The supreme court has 3 types of jurisdictions:

         (i) Original jurisdiction under article 131

         (ii) Appellate jurisdiction under article 132 

         (iii) Advisory Jurisdiction under article 143

 

Original jurisdiction refers to the matters for which the court is first approached. Such are the cases involving interpretation of the constitution

Therefore original jurisdiction of supreme court involves matters of:

  1. dispute between the Government of India and one or more States
  2. dispute between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more States on the other
  3. dispute between two or more States
  4. Article 32 of the Constitution provides original jurisdiction to the SC for matters regarding the enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
  5. The SC can issue writs, directions, or orders including writs in the nature of mandamus, habeas corpus, quo warranto, prohibition and certiorari.
  6. The SC also has the power to direct the transfer of a criminal or civil case from the High Court in one State to the High Court in another State.
  7. It can also transfer cases from one subordinate court to another State High Court
  8. If the SC deems that cases involving the same questions of law are pending before it and one or more High Courts, and that these are significant questions of law, it can withdraw the cases before the high courts or Courts and dispose off all these cases itself.
  9. The Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 gives SC the authority to initiate international commercial arbitration.

It also involves matters of question on which the existence or extent of legal rights depends. And the disputes concerned should be in respect of legal rights and not of political nature.

 
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