according to section 7 of Hindu Adoption and maintenance act
Capacity of a male Hindu to take in adoption
Any male Hindu who is sound mind and is not a minor has the capacity to take a son or a daughter in adoption:
PROVIDED that, if he has a wife living, he shall not adopt except with the consent of his wife unless the wife has completely and finally renounced the world or has ceased to be a Hindu or has been declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind.
Explanation: If a person has more than one wife living at the time of adoption, the consent of all the wives is necessary unless the consent of any one of the them is unnecessary for any of the reasons specified in the preceding proviso.
The person taking in adoption must not suffer from idiocy or insanity; he must have the capacity enough to understand the nature of the Act and what would be the legal effects of adoption . Simultaneously it is not the requirement the person concerned must be possessed with a very high degree of intelligence. There is a very strong presumption favouring soundness of mind.-Babubarelal v. Gulzari Devi 1979 All LJ 1333
Deaf and dumb but possessed with the capacity to express through signs and gestures, though not clearly, is to be taken as a person of sound mind.-Ambrish Kumar v. Hatu Prasad 1981 HLR 781
Proviso places a restriction as concerned to right to take in adoption that makes the consent of the wife a necessity so as to make the adoption valid. The consent must be obtained prior to the civil adoption takes place and not later on where the proviso is disregarded adoption is not valid.-Badrilal v. Bheru 1986 (1) HLR 81.
In the case of divorce the consent is not necessary but in the case of judicial separation, consent would be necessary. In case of two wives, consent must be of both the wives despite the fact that one of them was not living under the same roof for a big job of twenty or thirty years.-Bhooloo Ram v. Ram Lal 1989 (2) HLR 162
and according to section 8 of the act
8 Capacity of a female Hindu to take in adoption
Any female Hindu :-
(a) Who is of sound mind,
(b) who is not a minor, and
(c) who is not married, or if married, whose marriage has been dissolved or whose husband is dead or has completely and finally renounced the world or has ceased to be a Hindu or has been declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be of unsound mind,
has the capacity to take a son or daughter in adoption.
After the completion of the age of eighteen, a woman gets the capacity to adopt even though. she herself is unmarried. Where after the adoption, she is married, her husband would be step-father and she herself would remain adoptive mother as earlier. Adoption by an unmarried can also take place despite the fact that she is having an illegitimate child. - Ashoka Naidu v. Raymond AIR 1976 Cal 272.
A married woman has got no right to take in adoption during the subsistence of the marriage. But where the husband has completely and finally renounced the world or he had ceased to be Hindu or some competent court has declared him to be of unsound mind, the wife can adopt.- Dashrath V. Pandu 1977 Mah LJ 358
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