Attention: Constitutional experts


Dear Experts

I would appreciate it greatly if, as fast as possible, this the extracts below could be read  to give examples  from Constitutions of India for me to pass on to  Egypt’s activist women through my colleague at this truly critical time in the whole region’s history. The women's group in Egypt are lobbying for pro active changes in the constituion of Egypt at the time when now constituion is being amended by a committee in which there is no representation of women legal experts. They have collected some information from other countries and are still collecting more information from other constituions of the world. Please suggest what are the saliant features of our constitution you would like to send these strong women so that they can lobby for and build pressure on the constituion amendement committee to integrate those features. It would be our selfless contribution to the women's struggle in Egypt to make their voices heard and make them visible. I am copying  below some of the information that they have received from around the world and are still receiving them. Let us make our this post a contribution to this historical moment. 


Excerpts guaranteeing women’s rights from the post-Saddam Iraqi Constitution, the Namibian Constitution and the post-Apartheid South African Constitution.



The Preamble


We, the people of Iraq, who have just risen from our stumble, and who are looking with confidence to the future through a republican, federal, democratic, pluralistic system, have resolved with the determination of our men, women, elderly, and youth to respect the rule of law, to establish justice and equality, to cast aside the politics of aggression, to pay attention to women and their rights, the elderly and their concerns, and children and their affairs, to spread the culture of diversity, and to defuse terrorism.


Section Two

Rights and Liberties

Chapter One


First: Civil and Political Rights

Article 14:

Iraqis are equal before the law without discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity,

nationality, origin, colour, religion, sect, belief or opinion, or economic or social status.


Section Three

Federal Powers

Chapter one

The Council of Representatives

Article 49:

First: The Council of Representatives shall consist of a number of members, at a

ratio of one seat per 100,000 Iraqi persons representing the entire Iraqi people.

They shall be elected through a direct secret general ballot. The representation of

all components of the people shall be upheld in it.

Fourth: The elections law shall aim to achieve a percentage of representation for

women of not less than one-quarter of the members of the Council of







Article 10- Equality and Freedom from Discrimination (1) All persons shall be equal before the law. (2) No persons may be discriminated against on the grounds of s*x, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or economic status.







7. Rights.-( 1) This Bill of Rights is a cornerstone of democracy in South Africa. It enshrines the rights of all people in our country and affirms the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom.

9. Equality.- l) Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.

(3) The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, s*x, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, s*xual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth.


Thank you all in advance 




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For keeping the interest of woman, Indian constitution is best. As your request specifically for the purpose of keeping the interest of women, therefore the following provisions may be important for you, which derived from the Constitution of India, Art 15 & 16.

·        The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on the ground of s*x.

·        No citizen shall, on grounds of s*x, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to— (a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or (b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing area, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

·        Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women.

·        There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.

·        No citizen shall, on grounds of s*x, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.

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Dear Ambikaji,

Arupji has already pointed out the correct portion of the Constitution as desired by you, but please do not forget to mention the importance of the 2nd Amendment to the US Constitution to them. It is one of the most important amendments to the US Constitution based on which many liberties of the free citizens rest. Without RKBA almost everything in the Constitution gets reduced to practically a piece of paper in hands of people. People of Egypt should consider them lucky that they had Army(read RKBA) on their side this time, but they may not be so lucky the next time(if any need arises in future). I hope you understand what I mean.

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Amendment 19 - Women's Suffrage. Ratified 8/18/1920. History

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of s*x. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms.

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Thank you Arup ji and Democratic India. I will put together both of your contributions in a word file and send it off. Yes, I will mention this rigth to bear arms.

I will be doing it tomorrow, if both of you have some more to contribute, please do it.

I invite others also to contribute to women's groups in Egypt who right now do need such inputs from around the globe.

Thank you very much again

[See my Blog for NSSD-UOI] Founder - President Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Democratic Rights Forum (DRF) (Foundation for Social Justice and Constitutional Awareness for Trial of Public Service) email at Twitter;democrats_forum

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