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  • IBC aims to resolve insolvency efficiently, enhance asset value, and support entrepreneurship.
  • The Committee of Creditors (CoC) reviews and approves resolution plans, balancing and protecting all stakeholders' interests.
  • The CIRP is a time-bound process resolving corporate insolvency within 180-270 days involving IRP and CoC management, while the IBBI regulates IB.


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code commenced into force with an objective of providing consolidation of the mechanisms for insolvency law and bankruptcy related procedures.

Understanding Bankruptcy Laws: Insolvency refers to the inability of a borrower to meet his/her financial obligations with creditors to implement legal mechanisms that will solve the insolvency problem across the country.

Like most countries, India has its fair share of insolvency laws, until they upgraded and changed to what is known as the new IBC or the Insolvency and Bankruptcy code in the year 2016. It gives an ideal and systematic framework governing the settlement of insolvency and bankruptcy cases professionally, effectively and in a time-bound manner while optimising the value of associated assets. Anybody, whether an individual, company, partnership firms, or LLPs, which are involved in any business calculation is subjected to the IBC. This present piece provides an overview of the IBC and seeks to understand the mode of seeking to resolve insolvency under the Code.


The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), passed in 2016, is one of the modern and innovative laws in India that targets insolvency and bankruptcy concerns in the country successfully. The IBC lays down a set of legal processes to address insolvent and bankrupt companies in a quick and effective way. The major strategic aims of the IBC: achieving a time-sensitive result, implementing measures to raise the overall value of assets, supporting entrepreneurship, responding to the interests of clients and partners, and detailing the upgrading of business environments, all of which will be done to highlight their further elaboration.

A. Time-bound Resolution

i.    Importance of Timely Resolution: Another of the key goal of the IBC is to provide faster resolution of the insolvency cases. The Indian BVI till recently, lacked appropriate legal mechanisms for dealing with insolvent companies and individuals thus the existence of IBC. It also adversely impacted the growth of value for the debtor especially through the dilution of its assets’ value and caused uncertainty for creditors and other stakeholders.

ii.    Framework for Timeliness: The IBC also prescribes time-bound Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP). According to Stephen L. Teele, Andrey Pavlov, and Sattar Mansi (2018), the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) kicks off the whole resolution process by accepting an application for insolvency. And get this, they've got to wrap it all up within 180 days but can be extended by a further 90 days subject to an order by the NCLT. This makes the outer time-limit 270 days, which makes tracking and solving the insolvency cases more stringent and time-bound. 

iii.    Impact on Stakeholders: For all parties concerned, there is a time-bound approach to the resolution of the issues. For creditors, it enhances quicker realization of amounts due, which is a notable benefit for the bank or other financial organizations that may be expected to remain solvent. It affords applicants the prospect of either coming up with a plan to re-establish the business or continuing with the process of liquidation without the hitherto prolonged limbo. Similarly, employees and other operational creditors also emerge victorious courtesy of the beauty of the process in that their interests are well-combed and dealt with on timely basis.

iv.    Challenges and Improvements: Nevertheless, such strong framework and dates for compliance with timelines present several problems in the actual practice of the IBC because of the qualitative density of the cases and the capacity of the NCLT. But, the constant changes in the legal procedures and improvements in the judicial apparatus should overcome these challenges, The Primary goal of providing a time-bound solution is nearly achieved.

 B. Maximizing Asset Value

i.    Concept of Value Maximization: Special attention is paid to achieving corporate objectives and, in particular, the maximization of the value of the debtor’s assets in the framework of the resolution process. This objective is very important because it supports the idea that all the assets are being managed in the most effective manner possible, which would ultimately yield the highest returns possible for creditors and other stakeholders.

ii.    Competitive Bidding Process: In order to ensure value maximisation the IBC has several strategic processes of which this includes transparency and competitive bidding process. Investors who may be interested in making resolutions on the distressed company may be from within the country or from other countries. They are especially useful and effective in rendering high value from the assets given the competition that is usually exhibited in their application.

iii.    Role of the Resolution Professional: The role of the resolution professional in the Nigerian economy to understand how to offer Integrated Health Care (IHC) to business organizations through the entering of the resolution professional. There is one more player on this scene — the resolution professional. A resolution professional is appointed by the NCLT, who is to supervise the debtor’s assets and conduct the bidding process for the debt balance and make sure that the management chases a fair evaluation of the resolution plans. This is because their input is far more valuable and neutral when it comes to achieving the optimum value for an asset.

iv.    Outcomes of Value Maximization: Exploiting and optimising asset value therefore goes beyond creating economic value. It helps in the proper utilization of the available resources so that as few as possible are wasted, thus increasing economical yield, creditors get to increase the recovery rates while at the same time; the economy benefits from the sustenance and growth of the business entities.

v.    Addressing Challenges: But the problem arises as to how to attain this optimum level of value; that is, how to go about the achievement. This process is not always unique and depends on certain factors like conditions in the market where the company will be operating, the nature of operation of the business, and some legal issues. These challenges are contained in the IBC framework that undergoes assiduous changes in affairs to capture valuable recommendation from stakeholders and experts regarding improvement in value maximization prospects.

C. Promoting Entrepreneurship

i.    Encouraging Innovation and Risk-Taking: The IBC, in turn, was designed to encourage entrepreneurship by offering a simplified and understandable framework of how failing business can exit the market. This objective is especially critical when promoting new ideas and experimentation with new approaches, which are critical for developing new business solutions.

ii.    Reducing Stigma of Failure: Some of the common cultural shapers of the traditional business environments include: Failure in many of these situations is usually frowned at, this hampers the efforts of an entrepreneur who would like to undertake risky ventures. The IBC alters this paradigm as it provides a platform that recognizes business failure as an episode in the life of a businessperson. 

iii.    Facilitating Business Continuity: Due to the IBC, where real businesses are stuck in a temporary bad patch, they get the chance of revival with apt restructuring plans. This not only protects jobs but also guarantees an important asset of any business – valuable experience and relationships with customers. In that way, the IBC supports a solid environment for businesses while encouraging the continuity of their work.

iv.    Supporting Startups and SMEs: This is because many business startups, and businesses classified as small to medium enterprises (SMEs) are at the highest risk of business distress. The IFC provides these enterprises with a support mechanism through a clearly defined structuring framework of the IBC, to enable it deal with insolvents processes than before. This makes more people to start being involved in business, since they know that in case of difficulty, They have a solid framework to hold on to.

  D. Balancing Stakeholder Interests

i.    Inclusive Process: No doubt, the IBC is formulated in such a way that everyone who participates in the insolvency process gets what he deserves. This involves financial creditors, operational creditors, employees, and shareholders, as well as parties with an interest in insolvency proceedings. Stating the rights, as well as the claims, of each participant of the IBC, the framework guarantees that the decision is just strictly.

ii.    Role of the Committee of Creditors (CoC): The Committee of Creditors (CoC), primarily, involves the financial creditors and is one of the most important entities in the resolution process. It is up to the board to review resolution plans and to approve them as necessary with the goal of protecting their own self-interest. However, the IBC also spells that while the interests of the corporate debtor are protected, those of operational creditor and others are not trumped, thereby being balanced.

iii.    Protecting Employees’ Interests: When it comes to its impacts, the employees are among the most vulnerable in the insolvency process. The IBC also contain provisions to protect their interest as creditors so that Floor acquired dues and outstanding wages are recovered in the process of the resolution plans. This humane approach eliminates vulnerability of employees to be left jobless in the course of finance difficulties.

iv.    Ensuring Fair Distribution: The IBC ensures that the assets of the Debtor are equitably divided so that each creditor gets what is due to him/her/in accordance with his/her claim. This is a fair method of undertaking the practice, which assists in boosting trust and confidence in the insolvency procedures and hence increased participation form the stakeholders.

v.    Addressing Conflicts of Interest: The main field of working with stakeholder interests is seen in Conflict of Interest situations. The IBC, thus, offers a telescopic and stochastic formalism in that it addresses such conflict in ways that are quite clearly logical and amicable. This aids in ensuring implementation and denial of any forces that might have negative impacts in the resolution process of the party.

 E. Improving Ease of Doing Business

i.    Enhancing Investor Confidence: By offering a predictable insolvency resolution framework that is efficient, the IBC has relaxed doing business in India. This has however increased confidence among investors and resulted in India being an attractive destination for both local and foreign investments.

ii.    Streamlining Processes: The IBC corrects the bureaucracy and delays involved in the process of insolvency resolutions. Therefore it adequately ensures that firms can go through insolvencies without affecting their operations.

iii.    Facilitating Credit Availability: IBC has made credit more available by having an effective way for insolvency resolution. There is improved credit availability so as to support business growth and development due to this enhanced lending capacity from financial institutions because they know there exists a robust regime to deal with bankruptcy situations.

iv.    International Recognition: This Act’s impact on the Indian business environment has been globally acknowledged. The Ease of Doing Business report by the World Bank points out that India has made considerable progress in its Insolvency Resolution which contributed positively towards its overall ranking.

v.    Continuous Reforms: To maintain and enhance ease of doing business the IBC framework is continuously reformed and updated Feedback from stakeholders and industry experts is incorporated. Additionally international best practices are considered. These measures ensure that the IBC remains relevant and effective. This approach addresses the evolving needs of the business environment.

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) is an emergent legislation that has consolidated and amended the applicable laws for the reorganization and insolvency resolution of such entities like corporate persons, partnership firms, and individuals within a timeline. The major components of the IBC include, Subordinate legislation, ‘one law on insolvency, institutional framework, creditor led process, CIRP and the process of liquidation. All these characteristics are very important in achieving the goal, effective and efficient insolvency as well as bankruptcy resolution.


A. Single Law for Insolvency:

The IBC is also a centrally codified set of laws that govern insolvency and bankrupt solvent entities in India. Before formal introduction of the IBC in India, provisions to manage the insolvency and bankruptcy were fragmented with several overlapping laws, including Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985, and Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993. This situation meant that cases took a very long time in the courts, there was increased legal ambiguity, and most of the creditors received a very diminished return.

However these laws were; complicated and fragmented that applies to Queensland and the Northern territory these laws got consolidated into a single code dubbed IBC in 2016. The given unification has helped in improving the efficacy of insolvent legal resolutions and reduction of insolvency legal uncertainties while enhancing investors and creditors confidence. Single law brings the objective of creating a unified set of rules and regulation for the insolvency systems, which is vital in the making of rules and regulation to be consistent and thereby providing a heavily efficient insolvency systems.

B. Institutional Framework:

The IBC established a robust institutional framework to support its implementation, comprising several key institutions:

i.    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI): The IBBI as is under the IBC is the regulator that supervises the functioning of the code. It supervises insolvency professionals, members of insolvency professional agency, and Information utilities.

ii.    Insolvency Professionals (IPs): These are licensed person who got the responsibility to manage the insolvency resolution process. They have pivotal track regarding valuing the financial standing of the debtor, managing the resolution process and enhancing legal compliance.

iii.    Insolvency Professional Agencies (IPAs): These bodies accredit and also regulate the operations of insolvency professionals. They also ensure that IPs conforms to the set standards as prescribed by the IBBI.

iv.    Information Utilities (IUs): IUs are those places which provide information about the respective debtors and the recovered amount also for managing the goals of resolution. They need to make records of the debtor’s credit status and transactions and they do this in a clear manner and one that is easily retrievable.

v.    National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT): These quasi-judicial bodies hear insolvent companies and personal bankruptcy cases for instances in this country. The NCLT addresses the corporate insolvency issue, and DRT addresses the cause of action relating to the individuals and partnership firms.

C. Creditor-driven Process

One of the essential aspects of the IBC is that it changed the possession structure with creditors having control instead of debtors. In the previous system, the decision-making on the insolvent entity’s management was stayed with the debtor— this usually only made matters worse financially. The IBC overturns this by putting the power in the hands of the creditors, as they unite in a group called the Committee of Creditors (CoC).

As mentioned earlier, CoC is primarily dominated by financial creditors who have an authority to approve the resolution plan. This places the creditors in a strategic position to make key decisions that will determine the fate of the distressed organization, all in the interest of fulfilling their rights and aspirations. Resolution of a distressed entity involve proposal and implementation of a resolution plan which may possibly include the restructuring and turnaround of the entity, or possible liquidation that the creditors deem to be the most beneficial for them in terms of the value of the assets.

D. Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) 

The CIRP is the focal structural plan by which corporate insolvency is handled under the IBC. It is expected to be a much more time-bound approach, that must seek to practice insolvency within 180 days with a possible 90-day extension. Here’s an overview of the CIRP:

i.    Initiation: It can be filed by either the debtor or any of the financial or operational creditors under the Companies "[%]".

ii.    Moratorium: When the application is admitted or granted, a stay is ordered which suspends all enforcement activities, collections, and transfers of the assets of the debtor pending the commencement, continuance and conclusion of the process or management as aforesaid.

iii.    Public Announcement: An occasion announcement is made to notify creditors of the opportunity to present their claims.

iv.    Appointment of Interim Resolution Professional (IRP): An IRP is specifically tasked with obtaining control over the debtor’s assets, operating and managing such an entity, and forming the CoC.

v.    Resolution Plan: In order to assess the viability of a CoC, the following factors need to be considered: The CoC assesses and approves resolution plans prepared by a possible investor or bidder. Thus, the plan that gives at least 66% of the voting share of the CoC approves and forwards it to the NCLT to pass the final ruling.

E. Liquidation Process

In case the CIRP does not bring an insolvency situation to a close, or in case the CoC arrives at the conclusion that liquidation offers a superior option, the entity moves towards liquidation. Key steps include:

i.    Appointment of Liquidator: In the case of the NCLT, this court appoints a liquidator for managing and executing the liquidation process. The remitter takes full responsibility of the debtor’s assets and management.

ii.    Liquidation Estate: The liquidation encompasses all assets of the debtor through the formation of a liquidation estate by the liquidator. Keeping these assets, these assets are sold and used with the purpose of repaying the creditors.

iii.    Distribution of Proceeds: The sale of assets are used in a prescribed order and that has been enshrined in the IBC. Funds, both current and non-current, include secured creditors’ amounts, insolvency the cost of resolution, workmen dues, as well as other amounts in a certain order, set by the company.

iv.    Dissolution: After completion of the liquidation process final account of the claims is passed and then the order by the NCLT formally dissolves an entity.

The IBC has established a step-by-step mechanism which makes the completion of insolvency and bankruptcy cases in India much smoother and time effective than before. This has not only enhanced the legal outsourcing in India, but also assisted in the superior creditor rights coupled with the right and proper timely management of the distressed assets.


Proclaimed under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code of India (IBC), the change it brought in the insolvency and bankruptcy sector in India can be considered revolutionary. The IBC was signed into law in 2016 and it is an all-inclusive legal structure which aims at addressing the issue of insolvency of corporate groups, partnership and individuals. Whereas earlier there were disparate pieces of legislation governing the insolvency, the IBC has encompassed them in one code, therefore cutting down on the time, helped in avoiding delays and complicated processes that preceded insolvency.

The torch-bearer aspects of the IBC including the initiation of creditor driven process, the setting up of an efficient institutional structure, along with the integrated use of the CIRP and the Liquidation process have contributed to the enhancement of the resolution mechanism together. This change from debtor-in-possession to creditor-in-control has assured the proper formulation and implementation of a reorganization plan that serves most of the creditor’s interests and ensures timely and effective handling of financial tr


The CIRP as a k conceding undertaking focuses on the rehabilitation of distressed firms and conducts such processes within tight deadlines to foster decisiveness avoiding potential deterioration of the asset’s value. If the above resolution is not achievable, then the process of liquidation will ensure that all the assets of the company are sold fairly and with much transparency, and the money collected is also disbursed in a manner that is clearly stipulated.

On balance, the IBC has emerged as a critical landmark in shaping the improvement of the ease in doing business in India, a factor that has given investers confidence in the enhanced efficiency, predictability as well as fairness of processes of insolvency and bankruptcy. Still, as the enactment undergoes various changes in future amends as well as judicial precisions, it aims at empowering better to face the economic crises and surely will enhance the credit discipline in India.

7.    FAQs of IBC

I.    What is the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)? 

Answer: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) is the legislation passed by the parliament of India for gear up of insolvency law in India. The IBC is a complete law passed in India in 2016 for the realization of the reorganization and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms, and individuals which replaced the Companies act of 1956. It seeks to ensure promptness and efficiency in the resolution of insolvency, increase credit access, and share risk equitably among various stakeholders.

II.    Who can initiate the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP)? 

Answer: This process can be initiated by financial creditors, who include creditors and members of the corporate entity that has entered into insolvency.

The CIRP can be applied for by Banks and financial institutions as the financial creditor, operational creditors, or the corporate debtor in case of default in the payment of services or goods.

III.    What is the role of the Committee of Creditors (CoC)?

Answer: CoC is mainly constituted by financial creditors, has a critical stake in the CIRP process. It is appointed to confirm or reject the resolution plans forwarded by the potential investors or resolution applicants. By adopting the Interim Resolution Professional (IRP) and other important issues during the insolvency resolution, CoC also makes decisions on whether to continue or replace the IRP.

IV.    What happens during the moratorium period in CIRP? 

Answer: When the moratorium period kicks in during the course of CIRP, the payment obligations of the firm is usually halted at least for some time. When an insolvency application is admitted, then the court orders a stay or a suspension to all legal measures, enforcement actions, and transfers against the assets of the debtor. This makes it possible for the company to explore the legal process of the resolution without undue influence at the same time saving it time and resources.

V.    What is the time frame for completing the CIRP? 

Answer: This is in terms of the actual time that would be taken before the CIRP is concluded.

The CIRP may take up to 180 days after admission to complete; however, it may be extended for another 90 days under only some particular circumstances. This way the resolution process becomes time-bound and thus is very efficient in addressing the complaints.

VI.    What happens if a resolution plan is not approved?

Answer: If the company does not come up with its resolution plan within the given timeline or the NCLT disapproves of it, the company moves to liquidation. There are various models of liquidation which entail selling off the company assets to discharge the creditors and legally closing the company.

VII.    How are creditors’ claims prioritized during liquidation?

Answer: The IBC prescribes a specific order for settling claims, known as the "waterfall mechanism". The order is as follows: However, some of the issues which are needed resolution includes the costs associated with the processes of insolvency resolution, the claims of secured creditors, the claims of workmen, unsecured creditors, the amounts payable to government and the balance amounts to be paid to the remaining debts and the equity shareholders.

VIII.    Who oversees the liquidation process?

Answer: In the process of liquidation in law, it is the NCLT which appoints a liquidator for the company. The liquidator steps into the shoes of the debtor and creates a liquidation estate for administering the assets, identifies and substantiate the claims, and disposes of the assets through sale and distribute the receipts among the creditors in accordance with the stipulated hierarchical order.

IX.    Can an insolvency resolution process be initiated for individuals?

Answer: Yes, the IBC also provides for insolvency resolution and bankruptcy codes in case of individuals and partnership firms but major emphasis has been placed regarding corporate insolvency.

X.    What role does the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) play?

Answer: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) acts as an organizational body providing regulation and overseeing the functioning of IPs in the country.

The IBBI is the top governing organization that is in charge of the IBC. It set up its rules to govern insolvency professionals, insolvency professional agencies and information utilities. For the proper implementation of the Code, the IBBI also provides rules and regulations to be followed for the particular purpose.

XI.    How has the IBC impacted the ease of doing business in India?

Answer: The IBC has made a huge positive impact to ease the doing business for India as it has provided a very much smoother, efficient, time bound and most importantly a functional system for insolvency and bankruptcy. It has increased investor confidence, absolute credit discipline, and efficiency in recovering the credit dues from defaulters.

By addressing these frequently asked questions, stakeholders can better understand the IBC's framework, its processes, and its impact on the financial and business landscape in India.

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