Technologies steadily develop and create conditions where human’s intervention in advanced calculations and forecasts is minimal or even absent. Such modifications concern the established organizations in all spheres. The practice of saving time and resources is rapidly widening as operating integrated devices is now available not only in a corporate view but also daily life. The Internet has become accessible in almost every region of the world; costs for connection are gradually declining; technologies are getting cheaper; device penetration is rapidly growing. These changes in real-world create conditions for the prosperity of Internet of things (IoT). Internet of things is a concept of machine management and control of everyday actions that are performed in a workplace, at home, and generally in social life. Nowadays, the Internet of things can be applied in such areas as smart houses, smart transport, smart health, smart industry, smart city, and others. The primary goals of connected applications are to organize clear workflow, save time and resources, forecast future actions, and avoid disturbance of the continuous flow of activities. These features push developers to adopt IoT concepts in daily life and advance its facilities to simplify as many actions as possible.
Internet of things is a concept of the existence of objects that can be connected wireless and interact with each other to create new applications providing advanced unit work in a particular sphere. The name of this paradigm assumes that any device can be connected with another appliance if the latter is equipped with Wi-Fi. As long as the world almost entirely relies on global networks, recent years became the most fundamental in developing IoT. Although the first time the concept of IoT was introduced at a conference in 1989 in the form of Internet-connected toaster, the community assumed its usefulness and integrity of human routine work only in past decade when the development of information technologies took a sharp leap. The use of IoT was recognized gradually. What is more that students can get the excel homework assignments help here?
At first, IoT was widely employed in organizations to substitute mechanical calculations and functions to prevent delays and errors, as well as save time and resources that initially were related to the human factor. For example, logistics sector installed automatic identification at all levels of the supply chain that ensured scheduled work with minimum losses. Farming has become one of these spheres; it utilizes connected sensors to manage crops and cattle thus enhancing efficiency, production, and tracking the health of herds. Now, developers regard a unique concept of connection as an indispensable part of the organization of human life. People see the usefulness of IoT in making life easier and more convenient. They expect the performance of IoT as “living services” technology that foresees the desires of the owner and tries to satisfy them. In other words, people do not waste time on typing special instructions but receive an automatic natural and less visible system. The utility is in the provision of security, self-quantification applications, automatic optimization of all mechanical actions, and memorizing with personalization of everyday moments by IoT platform. Therefore, IoT concept is valued for its adoption to human preferences instead of the process of mechanical interference.
Tracking the vision of IoT usefulness, it is seen that people mostly value connection for personal use and in-house management. The concept of the smart home is an application of IoT that is built on trustworthy devices that run smoothly and reliably deliver individual and society-wide benefits. Personal benefits such as reinforcing the sense of security, saving finances, and others were mentioned earlier. The social benefit is the insurance of green and sustainable living that is performed in the installation of rooftop solar batteries and economic utilization of energy. There are numerous applications used in smart homes such as control of temperature, lighting, and fresh air. Safety is ensured due to smart fire alarms with sensors that measure smoke and motion detectors that send alerts in case of alien disturbance. At last, the smart refrigerator has already become an essential and widely used technology that notifies through mobile application what food is inside, what is missing from the traditional list, dates of expiration, and others.
Smart transportation is becoming another popular tendency but is still not accessible for the majority of the population due to high costs. Many manufacturers of premium class automobiles install safety sensors that prevent drivers from car accidents. Numerous crash tests that are aimed at improving autopilot function are not fresh news for innovation technologies venerators. If to mention public transportation, IoT is used to calculate fair payment of passengers according to the location and activity duration. Also, sensors indicate the permissible conditions of shipping according to the measures of vibration and strokes. In fact, such innovation is used in organizations that provide transport services. Companies also practice auto-diagnosis that prevents breakdown during performance.
Another application that IoT steadily improves is smart health. Healthcare has become closer to every person as the one can control his/her own health indicators through widely available smartwatches and fitness bands. Minimum functions that the cheapest device performs are tracking the heartbeat and steps. Smart devices can also measure the waste of calories and propose the range of exercises individually for each owner. Smart pills that measure medication effectiveness and indicate patient activity through the course of treatment have become another innovation. Other devices can track dangerous anomalies of senior and ill patients. In general, smart health follows the goal of monitoring and analyzing the condition of a person’s health and prevents disease or its aggravation.
The smart industry is one of the most advanced applications of IoT as the connection is conducted with machines and does not require human interruption. Its usage starts from monitoring the level of water, gas, or oil in tanks and ends with the integrated measurement of air quality on the level of toxic gas and oxygen to secure staff members. IoT application also controls service maintenance and forecasts actual failures. In general, connection applications are aimed at remote operation and monitoring of operational routines in manufacturing as well as measuring the level of worker’s safety with different hazardous chemical mixtures.
The last application that is worth mentioning is the smart city. It is the combination of measures that is initiated by the government and enterprises to organize city infrastructure efficiently. It consists of the solutions that aim to driving economic growth which are e-governance and citizen involvement, waste, water, and energy management, and urban mobility. E-governance and citizen involvement means constant monitoring of violations, electronic service delivery, and citizen engagement in organizations of improvements that government unable to notice. Waste management is compost and recycling, water management includes quality monitoring and leakage identification, while energy management is the application of renewable resources and architecting of green buildings. Urban mobility contains traffic management and smart parking which ensures monitoring of parking spaces, ant others.
Applications of IoT do not provide a real full image of the developed world in which people live. It is a sum of opportunities that are being gradually implemented in the daily life of everyone. The only feature that people wait for as new technology and are afraid at the same time is security. It should be noted that people want to be secure especially at home. Therefore, the issue of further developing the concept of the smart house is critical. However, risks in security start from modeling and design. Competitive threat modeling and reduced elective elaboration lower costs of secure IoT devices. Moreover, security is threatened in case of a breakdown when the root of causes requires disclosure of personal data on which system is programmed to work. Finally, Internet access and cloud-based systems on which the whole connection can hold are the weakest in case the program is hacked.
In conclusion, information technologies take the form of an unlimited warehouse of opportunities that are applied in every sphere of human activity. Internet of Things is the concept of connectivity that found its use in the management of cities, industries, improvement of transportation and enhancing the healthy life of people as well as securing their homes. The utility of IoT was renewed only in recent years, but the initiative of its development is already scheduled for couple more decades. It means that the areas that implement the IoT concept will use it as a secured and integrated platform during the following century and will advance it simultaneously with the development of the technology sphere.