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  • Concerns of EVM
  • Success OF EVM
  • EVM Innovations
  • Controversies and Supreme Court’s opinion on EVM 


In the first two general elections, which were held in 1952 and 1957, each candidate received a distinct box with their election symbol.  To cast their ballot, voters had to place a blank piece of paper into the designated box for the candidate they wished to support. After that, starting with the third election, voters could stamp the name and emblem of the candidate of their choice on a ballot paper.

An Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) is a voting equipment designed to electronically cast and record votes. It usually comprises a balloting device and a control unit. Voters utilise a ballot switch or press buttons on the balloting unit to cast their ballots, while poll workers operate the control unit. The electronic vote machine (EVM) keeps track of each vote cast and stops multiple votes. The confidentiality and integrity of the voting process are guaranteed by the tamper-proof design of EVMs. To conduct elections properly and effectively, they have been widely implemented in many nations, including India.

The Kerala Assembly constituency of Paravur saw the trial introduction of the EVM in 1982.  The installation of Electronic Voting machines (EVMs) attracted attention due to its potential to modernise and streamline the voting process,  though being an experimental run. During the 2001 Assembly elections in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Puducherry, they were set up in every booth. In several rulings, the Supreme Court has maintained the legitimacy of electronic voting machines. In India, EVMs are essential due to their effectiveness, precision, affordability, ease of use, and security. By streamlining the voting process, guaranteeing dependable vote tallying, conserving funds, and enhancing security protocols, they preserve the credibility of democratic elections throughout the nation.


  • Security:

Election integrity depends on the security of electronic voting machines. The potential for malevolent actors to tamper with EVMs to change vote counts or corrupt election results is one security concern. Sceptics contend that weakness may exist in the hardware, software, or procedures of EVMs and that the system is impervious to manipulation despite security precautions like encryption and tamper-evident seals.

  • Transparency:

It describes how transparent and unambiguous the electoral process is. It is difficult for voters and electoral observers to comprehend how votes are recorded, stored, and counted, according to critics, because the internal workings of EVMs are not sufficiently visible. The electoral process can be undermined by a lack of openness, which can give rise to allegations of fraud or wrongdoing.

  • Reliability:

Concerns have been expressed about the dependability of EVMs, encompassing claims of malfunctions or partiality inside the devices.

  • Auditability:

The capacity to independently analyse and verify election results to ensure their integrity and correctness is known as suitability. Opponents contend that the weak auditing procedures in the present EVM systems make it challenging to find flaws or anomalies in the voting procedure. It is difficult to guarantee that votes are reliably recorded and counted in the absence of strong auditability procedures.

  • Voter Confidence:

Election legitimacy depends on the trust of the electorate, Whether proven or not, incidents of EVM malfunction or controversy have the potential to reduce public confidence in the election process. Voters may lose faith in the democratic process and become disenchanted if they believe that elections are susceptible to fraud or manipulation.

  • Accessibility:

The ease with which all individuals, even those with impairments or low levels of computer literacy, can take part in the election process is referred to as accessibility. Even though EVMs are meant to be user-friendly, some demographic groups may find it difficult to operate the devices. Maintaining the ideals of inclusivity and equitable participation in elections requires making sure that EVMs are usable by every voter.


  • Efficiency:

When compared to traditional paper ballots, electronic voting machines have greatly increased voting process efficiency by cutting down on the time needed for both casting and tallying votes.

  • Reduction in Fraud:

Because of its electronic verification methods and tamper-proof design, EVMs have contributed to the reduction of electoral fraud, including booth capturing and fake voting.

  • Accuracy:

Election results are more credible because electronic voting machines reduce human error in counting and tallying votes.

  • Cost-Effectiveness:

Since EVMs do not require the printing or transportation of huge amounts of ballot paper, they have shown to be more affordable over time when compared to manual paper ballots.

  • Transparency:

With the ability to be audited if needed, EVMs offer a transparent electronic record of all votes cast.

  • Continuous Improvement:

India’s election authorities are constantly enhancing EVM technology to meet security, dependability, and transparency issues.

  • Public Trust:

EVMs have generally gained popular trust as a trustworthy method of holding elections in India, despite occasional scandals and concerns


  • Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT):

With the help of this innovation, the voters can confirm their votes using a paper receipt before they are cast electronically, increasing voting process transparency and trust.

  • Security Measures:

To guard against manipulation and tampering, EVMs have integrated sophisticated security features like secure transmission protocol, tamper detection mechanism, and strict physical security measures.

  • Accessibility:

Features that assure accessibility for all voters included in EVMs. These features include tactile interfaces, Braille labels, and authority feedback for blind voters or the visually impaired.

  • Technological Upgrades:

To ensure the validity and integrity of elections, EVMs are regularly upgraded to include new features and six new security flaws.




 BJP candidate earned 16 votes, while the AAP candidate garnered 12 votes, in the Chandigarh mayoral election. However, after eight votes were ruled to be invalid, accusations of fraud surfaced. The BJP member serving as the presiding officer was accused by the AAP and Congress of tampering with the ballot papers. The candidate of the AAP submitted a request for new polls overseen by a former High Court judge. The BJP refuted the claims. AAP and Congress councillors abstained from the following round of voting, but the BJP’s nominees for senior deputy mayor and deputy mayor were elected despite the controversy.

Supreme Court’s Opinion:

Regarding the purported ballot fraud in the Chandigarh mayoral election, the Supreme Court has voiced grave concerns. Considering the eight invalidated ballots to be legitimate, they have ordered a recount of the votes. Furthermore, the court has recommended that Anil Masih, the Returning Officer, be prosecuted for his activities, seeing them as damaging to democracy. This demonstrates the court’s dedication to protecting the fairness of the election process and guaranteeing its integrity.



 Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), a non-governmental organisation, filed a petition requesting that the Election Commission reverse its decision to swap out the clear glass on VVPAT devices for opaque ones. The Election Commission, the petitioners, and other interested parties held a hearing before the Supreme Court to voice their concerns regarding the electoral process’s reliability and transparency, especially about the use of electronic voting machines.

Supreme Court’s Opinion:

The Election Commission is a constitutional body tasked with holding elections in India, and the Supreme Court has made it clear that it does not have jurisdiction over its operations.  The court made it clear that it can not act on suspicion alone and must have proof before taking any further action. Advocate Prashant Bhushan’s concerns were also acknowledged by the court, which stated that it could not change people’s preconceived ideas or opinions. This emphasises the idea that the court’s job is to interpret the idea that the court’s job is to interpret the law and the constitution, not to impose its prejudices or ideas.




Various political parties and groups have made accusations of EVM manipulation to alter election outcomes.

Supreme Court’s opinion:

The Supreme Court has always ruled in favour of EVM integrity and denied petitions that questioned their dependability. The court highlighted the steps taken by the Election Commission of India to guarantee the safety and openness of the voting process, noting that EVMs are reliable and impervious to tampering.



Election-related worries regarding the absence of vote-verified paper audit trails and claims that electronic voting machines could be rigged in the absence of a paper trail.

Supreme Court’s opinion:

The Supreme Court has ordered that ECI utilise VVPAT more frequently to improve electoral transparency in response to petitions. To guarantee the integrity of the election process, the court has emphasised the significance of voter confidence and the requirement for a traceable paper trail.



Election-related complaints, such as defective voting machines, disparities in vote totals, and allegations of manipulation.

Supreme Court’s opinion:

The Supreme Court has stepped in to address allegations of electoral fraud, ordering ECI and other relevant authorities to carry out thorough investigations and take necessary corrective action. The court has stressed that free and transparent elections are essential to democracy.


Election accuracy and efficiency could be enhanced by EVMs, but public confidence in the electoral process and strong security are ultimately necessary for EVMs to be effective. Supporters emphasise the advantages, but detractors point out legitimate worries about tampering vulnerabilities and the requirement for strict security measures. The discussion emphasises how crucial it is to keep assessing and developing voting technology to preserve the integrity of democratic processes.

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