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Business-related issues including contracts, exports and imports, financial arrangements, trade, etc. are referred to as "commerce." Hence, Commercial Courts are designed to handle business-related concerns including fraud, contract breaches, unfair business practises, etc. Issues that arise in enterprises can be resolved by Commercial Courts. Simply put, every business that experiences a loss as a result of unfairness in a transaction has the right to knock on the door of a commercial court.

According to the most recent figures, there are more than 3 crore cases waiting across the nation. With a population of over 1.3 billion, India is the most populous country after China and the country with the greatest landmass. The government in India has also granted freedom to conduct any kind of business. In addition, it's critical to address the problem brought up in the business world. The Times of India reported that the number of business court cases that are pending has increased daily. For the country to draw in both domestic and foreign investors, it is crucial that the government establish a stable economic environment. Bringing clarity to the legal framework controlling corporate behaviour in the nation and simultaneously ensuring that the litigation process is easy, fair, and bound are two actions the government may take to ensure the formation of a sound business environment.

Commercial courts

Section 2(b) of the Commercial Courts Act of 2015 defines "commercial courts." After consulting with the relevant High Court, any court established by the State Government at the district level may, by notification, exercise its authority under the Commercial Courts Act, 2015.

According to Section 3(3) of the Act, the State governments may appoint one or more individuals with prior experience in commercial issues to serve as judges of the Commercial Court with the approval of the Chief Justice of the High Court.

How do we submit a matter to the Commercial Courts? Inspection, Disclosure, and Discovery

The Plaintiff is required to submit a list of all documents and photocopies related to the case that are in its power, possession, control, or custody, indicating whether they are originals, office copies, or photocopies. The Plaintiff must also briefly list the parties to each document, the manner in which it was executed, issued, or received, and the line of custody of each document.

The Plaintiff shall submit a Statement of Truth from the Plaintiff attesting that it does not possess any additional documents and that all documents in its power, possession, control, or custody pertaining to the facts and circumstances of the proceedings have been disclosed and copies thereof annexed.

In the event of an urgent filing, the plaintiff may ask for permission to rely on additional papers, which must be filed within 30 days after the lawsuit filing together with an oath of affirmation.

Unless with the court's permission, no plaintiff will be permitted to rely on documents that were not disclosed, and that permission will only be given if the plaintiff can demonstrate a good justification for the non-disclosure.

The plaint must include specifics about any documents the plaintiff intends to rely on and asks for permission to produce that it thinks to be in the defendant's authority, possession, control, or custody.

The defendants are subject to the same rules regarding the written statement/counterclaim.

Until the case is resolved, the need to disclose records is still in effect.

The plaint must include specifics about any documents the plaintiff intends to rely on and asks for permission to produce that it thinks to be in the defendant's authority, possession, control, or custody.

The opportunity exists for parties to deliver written interrogatories for the examination of opposing parties with the court's permission.

After filing a written statement, parties have 30 days to finish the document examination process. The court has the authority to extend this deadline.

A party may request guidance at any time on the other party's inspection or production of documents that have either been refused for inspection or have not been produced despite notice to do so. A decision on such an application must be made within 30 days of the filing date.

Within five days of the order, inspection and copies of the papers must be produced if the application is approved.

Within 15 days of the inspection's conclusion, each party is required to provide a statement of admission and denial regarding the accuracy of the document's contents, its existence, issuance, receipt, and custody, as well as an affidavit in support of it.

A party must give justifications for rejecting a document.

The provision of printouts shall be sufficient compliance in the case of disclosures and inspections of Electronic Documents (as defined in the Information Technology Act, 2000). Electronic copies of electronic records may even be provided in addition to or instead of printouts, at the parties' discretion.

The authority of commercial courts

The Jurisdiction of Commercial Courts is covered in Section 6. All lawsuits and applications involving commercial disputes that originate from anywhere on the state's full territory must be resolved by the commercial courts, which have been granted territorial authority. The requirements of Sections 16, 17, 18, and 20 of the Code of Civil Procedure of 1908 shall apply to any commercial dispute.

High courts' business divisions have jurisdiction

The jurisdiction of the High Courts' commercial divisions is covered under Section 7. All lawsuits and applications pertaining to business issues with specific values filed with the High Court are heard by the Commercial Division of the High Courts, which has original civil jurisdiction.

Any cases and applications pertaining to business disputes that are pending on the original side of the High Court and that are specified by an act to lie in a court (not inferior to a District court) may be heard by the Commercial Division of the High Court.

The Commercial Division of the High Court shall hear and decide on any lawsuits and applications referred to it under to Section 22(4) of the Design Act, 2000 or Section 104 of the Patents Act, 1970.

Appeals from Commercial Court rulings The Commercial Courts Act 2015 addresses appeals in Chapter IV, Section 13(1).

  • The Commercial Appellate Division will hear appeals from orders of Commercial Court judges below the District level, and appeals must be made within 60 days after the order's issuance.
  • The Commercial Appellate Division of that High Court must receive an appeal within 60 days of the date the order was issued by a Commercial court at the District Judge level exercising original civil jurisdiction or, as the case may be, the Commercial Division of the High Court.
  • Any order or decree issued by a Commercial Division or Commercial Court may only be appealed in conformity with the Act's requirements.

"The Commercial Appellate Court and the Commercial Appellate Division shall endeavour to dispose of appeals filed within a period of six months from the time of such appeal," states Section 14.


Commercial Courts are tribunals that deal with disputes involving commerce that arise in the business world. The Commercial Courts Act 2015 was introduced by the government to create a unique category of district-level court for commercial disputes. The Commercial Courts Act 2015 Act was amended in 2018, bringing with it a number of modifications for the seamless operation of commercial courts with the least amount of pending cases.

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