Causation Of Crimes: Can We Pinpoint What Leads To Criminal Activity

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Pyromania is one of the four recognized types of arson.
  • A person with kleptomania has a recurring drive to steal that he or she cannot resist, stealing items for the sake of stealing, not because they have or want the items, or because they can't afford to shop for them.
  • There has been a consensus that violence risk is increased in schizophrenia

INTRODUCTION

Before we get into this article, let me explain what is the scope of this article, it is to understand what leads to crime or the causation of crime, or at least to get an idea of it. To elucidate on this point, criminologists have always differed in their view regarding crime causation. Continental criminologists have support the endogenous theory of criminality which is rounded on bio-physical consideration of criminals. The American criminologists on the opposite hand, are more inclined to elucidate criminality in terms of social constantly changing with the social change. Psychologists too have conducted in-depth studies on the concept of crime and criminality and associated crime in terms of personality deviations. Furthermore, criminologist suggests that man is not criminal but they are, sometimes, bound to commit crime for social disorder like poverty, family breakdown, and unemployment etc. and at the same time, there are some hidden biological & psychological factors by virtue of which they proceed towards crime in spite of their unwillingness.

FURTHER DETAILS

In furtherance, criminal psychology has often held the view that some individuals are more susceptible to committing crime. They are of the assumption that psychologically disturbed criminals who commit more crime due to their mental depravity or emotional stability. In addition to this, they also hold the view that aside from psychological factors, sociological factors like less education, unskilled labours, and poor sanitation facilities can create complex and therefore the ultimate result's that they struggle to beat their shortcomings by unrealistic self-assertions and lend into criminality. The desire for material gain (money or expensive belongings) results in property crimes like robberies, burglaries, white-collar crimes, and auto thefts. The desire for control, revenge, or power results in violent crimes like murders, assaults, and rapes. These violent crimes usually occur on impulse or the spur of the instant when emotions run high. Property crimes are usually planned in advance.

THE DIFFERENT CAUSES OF CRIME

Pyromania: Pyromania is one of the four recognized types of arson, alongside burning for profit, to cover up an act of crime and for revenge. Pyromania is that the second commonest sort of arson. Common synonyms for pyromaniacs in colloquial English include firebug (US) and fire raiser (UK), but these also ask arsonists.

Kleptomania: an individual with kleptomania features a recurring drive to steal that he or she cannot resist, stealing items for the sake of stealing, not because they need or want the items, or because they can't afford to shop for them. It is quite rare, and not the same thing as shoplifting.

Schizophrenia: There has been a consensus that violence risk is increased in schizophrenia. Much of this research was summarised during a meta-analysis in 2009 (Fazel et al, 2009). It reported a mean four-fold increase in violent crime in men with schizophrenia, compared to men without schizophrenia. This is due to the disorganised thought process, lack of coherence between thought ad emtion and an inward orientation away from reality. An accused can claim insanity under Section 84 of IPC, devoid of mens rea.
School Learning: Social learning theory proposes that we engage in either criminal or noncriminal behavior supported the social environment around us, which we’re especially influenced by how other people reward or model behavior. This theory asserts that criminal behaviors are learned and thus are often counteracted by developing a social environment during which criminal behavior isn't normalized.

Labeling: Labeling theory proposes that applying a label, whether meaning informally designating a youth as a "bad kid" or a "troublemaker" or a more formal arrest or incarceration record, has a long-term effect on a given person. Policies inspired by labeling theory were popular within the 1970s, but they were perceived as ineffective and fell out of use, replaced by "tough on crime" rational choice approaches. Contemporary research has shown evidence of the profound impact that labeling can wear individuals, as formal labeling has been shown to possess a measurable effect on juveniles' future education and employment opportunities—repercussions that can lead to continued criminal behaviour

Heredity and brain activity: checking out the origins of antisocial personality disorders and their influence over crime led to studies of twins and adopted children within the 1980s. Identical twins have the precise same genetic makeup, researchers found that identical twins were twice as likely to possess similar criminal behaviour as fraternal twins who have similar but not identical genes, just like any two siblings. Other research indicated that adopted children had greater similarities of crime rates to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents. These studies suggested a genetic basis for a few criminal behaviour.

Fear: People suffering from paranoia or an imbalanced mind may be under the constant tension of being harmed, punished or caught and commits a crime. This is often seen in the case of kidnapping where the kidnapper dears that his identity would be disclosed, he murders his victim/hostage. The offender always tries to remove the evidence from the scene of the crime.

CONCLUSION

Psychologists have now began to advance to the psychological influences which a private has which drive him to commit a criminal offense. For example, a toddler who has only seen crime as how of legal document address crime just for his survival. He will unconsciously imbibe criminal traits from the family background of the delinquent parents and subsequently turns into a confirmed criminal. Further, a toddler who has been removed from their parents by the state at very tender age often follow criminality to hunt an appropriate parental care and have an escape mechanism and outlet for the lack of love and affection. This results in emotional scarring, inferiority frustration and embarrassment in them. This is not a sure shot but theories for causation of crime in humans.

 

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