That is precisely why I have said " awareness and intelligence" and not literacy. It is not enough if literacy alone is high. More than that citizens should have better sense of responsibility,justice and selflessness. I have come across lot of people who are illiterates or who have little education but who have exhibited better sense of justice ,responsibility and selflessness.
Moreover there is no worthy encouragement for people who exhibit such good social qualities. The government and society should nourish and support people who work for public causes. How many such people have been made MLAs or MPs or members of the governing bodies of organizations. When law and society elevate such good people to responsible and powerful positions, and throw or penalise bad, irresponsible and selfish or corrupt people from positions of power, real change will happen.
For this to happen, the majority of the population has to be on the right side.
For instance, the event of bribing the train conductor to get a berth. Such events happen because, the majority are irresponsible and are not interested in raising their voice against the conductor and the person who bribes to get aberth. If the majority are intelligent selfless and aware of the injustice involved, they can unite together and even stop the train and demand the arrest the conductor who accepts a bribe and the person who bribes him. If that kind of spirit is there in the society, people will be afraid of accepting or giving bribes and in course of time it will become good order of the day.
Government should make way for nourishing such a kind of spirit in the citizens. For instance, if govt announces a policy like the following :
1. Corrupt Train conductors(for example) who accept bribes to allocate berths, if caught on such acts will be arrested and dismissed from their jobs( and will be disqualified for any govt job in their life-time)on the spot.
2.Citizens/passengers who would like to report such incidents can ring specific phone numbers(toll free).
3.If reported, the relevant team of officials incharge of handling of such reports will reach within 30 minutes or 1 hour to the reported station or train and take on the spot action.
4. Citizens who report such acts of corruption will be accorded credit points for every such reporting in public interest and during recruitment of people for govt jobs and positions in the representation of people, the people with such credit points will be ranked and the selection will be based on such ranking achieved with credit points ( education etc. being other basic qualifications)This kind of carrot and stick policy in governance, i.e., rewarding the responsible ones and punishing the corrupt ones, when combined with effective legislation and timely implementation, in a society with people full of awareness, intelligence and responsiblity will bring to effect excellant justice and the society we dream of will become a reality.
5.If such a policy is implemented two good changes will come to effect: a. The corrupt will be weeded out and b. Responsible and honest citzens will come to power or position.
Honesty, respopnsibility, and justice will lead to the same in turn. So is the case with corruption, irresponsibility and injustice. The later is happening now.
One can easily identify where all our current society and government are lacking.