Indian Penal Code 1860 covers all criminal offences and anybody found guilty of such offences they will be penalised under this Code 1860.
Chapter XVII of Indian Penal Code 1860 specifies offences committed against property which are compressed under sections 378 to 462
Section 437 of Indian Penal Code 1860 defines a person causing damage with the intention of destroying or rendering a decked vessel or one carrying twenty tonnes dangerous
Section 438 of Indian Penal Code 1860 specifies the punishment for the offence committed under section 437 of the Code 1860
India's primary criminal code is the Indian Penal Code (IPC), which dates back to 1860. It is a thorough code that aims to cover all important areas of criminal law. On the advice of the first law commission of India, which was founded in 1834 and presided over by Lord Macaulay, the code was written in 1860. In the year 1862, it became operative. Since then, the Code has undergone several revisions and currently includes more penal laws.
Specific offences are defined and sanctioned by the IPC in its different parts. It is broken into 511 sections spread across 23 chapters. The crimes against property are listed in Chapter 17.
Under this chapter from section 425 to 440 encompass the offence of mischief. Mischief is the legal term for the crime of property harm. If the accused makes changes to the victim's property that diverges from its intended, accepted usage then such act will fall under mischief against property. The severity of penalty for different activities that cause harm to the victim's property is laid forth in the section on "aggravated kinds of mischief."
ELABORATION ON SECTION 437 OF IPC
Offence committed under section 437 of the Code 1860 is an act of mischief of property. Anyone who causes damage to a decked vessel or a vessel with a burden of twenty tonnes or more with the intent to demolish it or deliver it unsafe, or with knowledge that he will likely do so, will be punished with either type of imprisonment for a term that may reach ten years and will also be subject to a fine.
The punishment for this offence is described under section 438 of the Code 1860. Any mischief as stated in the section 437 that is committed or attempted to be committed using fire or any explosive material would result in either life imprisonment or with either type of imprisonment for a time that may last up to 10 years, as well as being subject to a fine.
The crime under this section is a cognizable and non-bailable offence. Session Court holds the jurisdiction for the trial of the offence committed under section 437.
BASIC ELEMENT OF MISCHIEF IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 437
The elements for any mischief act would be same and they are such that:
The act's awareness or intention (mens rea).
The act that causes the property or circumstance to be destroyed, damaged, or altered; and (actus rea).
The worth or utility of the item must decrease.
These key elements are defined under section 425 of Indian Penal Code 1960 which are considered the same criteria for any mischief even for the offence under section 437 of Indian Penal Code 1860.
In the case law of “Krishna Gopal Singh And Ors. v. the State Of U.P.” It was agreed that if the accused conducted an act without knowing or intending that it would likely result in unlawful loss or damage to another person or the general public, the act would not come within the definition of mischief since "Mens rea" would not have been present. In a similar vein, an act performed under coercion or under pressure without free permission will not qualify as mischief either.
COMPOSITION UNDER SECTION 320 OF CrPC.
Section 320 of Criminal Procedure code 1973 states compounding of offences. The individuals listed in the third column of that Table may compound the offences listed in the initial two columns of the Table below that are punished under the provisions of the Indian Penal Code of 1860.
Offence under section 437 is not listed under the compoundable offences therefore it is non-compoundable offence. It does not meet the criteria under section 320 of CrPC which specifies the person and the act which can be compounded.
SECTION 437 AS AGGRAVATED MISCHIEF
Section 425 of the IPC defines mischief as any act that results in material destruction or damage that results in wrongful loss or harm. This clause has a broad range of application and covers both public and private damages.
The most crucial issue is that it won't apply in situations where there isn't an element of purpose. Additionally, it is not necessary that the accused had a good reason for the "mischief" or must have benefitted from it.
This is explained under the case of “Indian Oil Corporation v. NEPC India Ltd. and Ors.” The Court ruled that the possession or ownership of the property is not a determining element in the question of whether section 425 of the IPC should be applied. As long as all the other prerequisites specified are met, mischief is considered to have been committed even though the accused is the property owner.
Offence mentioned under section 437 of Indian Penal Code 1860 is the aggravated form of mischief which specifically has a separate punishment prescribed under section 438 of Indian Penal Code 1860
As civilization progresses, new circumstances and problems also appear. Similar to how the crime of mischief looks to be extremely comprehensive and extensive, encompassing all fifteen sections of the IPC. It makes an effort to address all potential types of mischief by outlining various penalties for each in accordance with the seriousness of the offence.
Nevertheless, it continues to fail to provide appropriate sanctions for a range of other frequently occurring forms of mischief. Furthermore, it does not specify the several circumstances that can possibly come within the definition of mischief, leaving it entirely up to the Judges' judgement to determine if an act qualifies as mischief, classify it as such, and determine the appropriate sentence.