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Is narco-analysis test reliable?

 A brief outline of the narco-analysis test:

 
The narco-analysis test is conducted by mixing three grams of Sodium Pentothal or Sodium Amytal dissolved in 3000 ml of distilled water. Narco test refers to the practice of administering barbiturates or certain other chemical substances, most often Pentothal Sodium, to lower a subject’s inhibitions, in the hope that the subject will more freely share information and feelings. A person is able to lie by using his imagination. In the narco-analysis test, the subject’s inhibitions are lowered by interfering with his nervous system at the molecular level. In this state, it becomes difficult, though not impossible for him to lie. In such sleep-like state, efforts are made to obtain ‘probative truth’ about the crime. Experts inject a subject with hypnotics like Sodium Pentothal or Sodium Amytal, under the controlled circumstances of the laboratory. The dose is dependent on the person’s sex, age, health and physical condition. The subject, which is put in a state of Hypnotism is not in a position to speak up on his own, but can answer specific but simple questions after giving some suggestions. The answers are believed to be spontaneous, as a semi-conscious person is unable to manipulate the answers.
 
Wrong dose can send the subject into coma or even result in death. The rate of administration is controlled to drive the accused slowly into a hypnotic trance. The effect of the bio-molecules on the bio-activity of an individual is evident, as the drug depresses the central nervous system, lowers blood pressure and slows the heart rate, putting the subject into a hypnotic trance, resulting in a lack of inhibition. The subject is then interrogated by the investigating agencies in the presence of the doctors. The revelations made during this stage are recorded, both in video and audio cassettes. The report prepared by the experts is what is used in the process of collecting evidence. This procedure is conducted in government hospitals after a court order is passed, instructing the doctors or hospital authorities to conduct the test. Personal consent of the subject is also required.
 
Other associated truth finding tests:
 
Apart from narco test, there are also other two kinds of tests, which are popularly used on the convict for extraction of truth, these are -
 
I. Polygraph or lie detection test:
 
It is an examination, which is based on an assumption that there is an interaction between the mind and body and is conducted by various components or the sensors of a polygraph machine, which are attached to the body of the person who is interrogated by the expert. The machine records the blood pressure, pulse rate and respiration and muscle movements. Polygraph test is conducted in three phases - a pretest interview, chart recording and diagnosis. It was Keeler, who further refined the polygraph machine by adding a Psycho-galvanometer to record the electrical resistance of the skin.
 
II. P300 or the brain mapping test:
 

This test was developed and patented in 1995 by neurologist Dr Lawrence A Farwell, director and chief scientist, ‘Brain Wave Science’, IOWA. In this method, called the ‘brain-wave finger printing’, the accused is first interviewed and interrogated to find out whether he is concealing any information. Then sensors are attached to the subject’s head and the person is seated before a computer monitor. He is then shown certain images or made to hear certain sounds. The sensors monitor electrical activity in the brain and register P300 waves, which are generated only if the subject has connection with the stimulus, i.e. picture or sound. The subject is not asked any questions here. In America, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been making use of ‘brain mapping technique’ to convict criminals 


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