A Discussion on Brihadaranya Upanishad

In Saptana-Brahammana (a part of Brahadaranyaha Upanishad by Yagnavalkya says), it is said, there are ‘three worlds’ -

World of Men; (physical world)
World of Manes (ancestral fore fathers reside) :(attainable by ‘Karmas’):
World of Gods (celestials live) (Godliness)(attainable by Knowledge).

World flourishes and lives  in three different levels of Consciousness:

World of Men (physical world) attainable by ‘progeny’ (sons - your own clan) (so many want ‘sons’ mostly to propagate their own clan) ( X and Y chromozomes needed) (So every family ought to have male and female progeny , i.e.,  to ensure, as son alone cannot  produce children as 29 chromosomes of his and 29 chromosomes of the female counterpart obtained from other clans indeed a must combination, else ‘No Progeny is possible, from here commences the ‘Karmic theory);


1. That is why ‘No Gay marriages were recognized then , though the ‘gays’ were too living then, but they cannot be any useful for progeny development - In fact , ‘Gay Act in India among Hindus is questionable if viewed from ‘progeny ideas)

2.  (If legally contested, the  Hon. Supreme Court might declare the applicability of the Act as far as Hindus are concerned might get ‘Severed’ under Doctrine of Severability - as parents believe the ‘sacred rites ‘ to be performed by ‘Sons’ when parents die, is my  personal view, as Hindus staunchly follow the ‘rites and rituals’ for these rites and rituals to be rightly admissible even for ‘intestate succession’ per Hindu succession Act as it has to read with some aspects of Indian Succession Act,1923, that means, even law makers have no rights to question the validity of Hindu succession Act, if they do , that might get treated as ‘extra constitutional  jurisdiction’ the Hon. Apex Court might declare.)  .

Son’s duty:

Well said by Tiruvalluvar (a Tamil saint Poet cum great Thinker:

‘Magan Thanthai ku attrun  udavi, ‘Ivan thandai  Ennottran en sol’ (ennonbutru, inda maganai pettran enbade aagum), ….’

i.e: What kind of great good things this father did, in his life to get this  kind of this kind of son, ‘the world need praise that son, in his life time,  then only the ‘Son’ really qualifies to confirmed by the world ‘this is a great son’; else he cannot qualify to be a real good son to  be called a ‘great’ son.  

Notes & Remarks:

1. (This today’s many Sons may not qualify into this category, at all, as most sons today just ‘disown parents’ , that means, many tenets of Mitakshara or.Dhayabhaga schools would not qualify sons to ‘inherit’  the father’s properties under ‘Interstate  Succession paradigm, too, if read deeply into the Hindu Law of Succession  or the Hindu Succession Act, if read properly under Hindu  Law of Interpretation obviously to be studies by taking into account  Hindu Scriptures as applicable to Hindus, it tantamount to.)

Remarks: Tiruvalluvar himself a great interpreter of Scriptures in the classical Pali and Tamil literature; (Several Tamil Kings and Tamilian families followed his tenets, even today his ‘Couplets are propagated in Tamil Nadu, that can be seen in  Tamil Nadu Government  busses and else where).

2. (This is as far as  the Scriptural understanding  of physical nature of man as such as perceived by ‘Seers’ in those ancient days and also their perceptions were closely followed by the ordinary peasantry class.

World  of Manes: (attainable by Karmas - Duties mentioned in Scriptures, besides real physical worldly workings and one has to perform his duties as Grahastaha (Family man, married and running the family and duties to fore fathers called the Ancestors):

Only dutiful son earns name and fame for his father.

Even father’s death, his father’s name indelibly remain and remembered through his ‘progeny’.

Therefore, all wish for a son who would  take charge of his duties (meaning , every family follows some occupation that becomes hereditary, as children need not run out seeking for some job as an employee of some other, that way ‘occupation’ of his father is followed like King’s son becomes a prince and after the king is dead the prince takes over kingship, the same rule followed for every Hindu family created - that way hereditary occupations were conceived.

Unlike today just once you finish some education you are on ‘roads’ seeing for some jobs, that was not the case, besides, ‘high specialization of the occupation ensued like in Agriculture.

You expect government to get for you a ‘job’ or ‘occupation’ today that concept was not there, as Americans even today say  , what government,? -

‘I need to stand on my own, so my individual liberties and individuality cannot be bartered by any one, after all I pay some ‘Tax’ to government as my contribution to governance so that the State protects me and my individual rights, like that.

Thus, there emerged the idea of ‘fundamental rights’; - that way the theory Montesquieu emanated,

-‘the Theory of Separation of powers between three arms of the government - Legislature, Government, and Judiciary, not repeat not inter changeable’.

This means your destiny is clearly ear-marked out already; before you are born is the paradigm.

That way there were then those democracies, like in Vaishali (then India) where was born Lord Buddha like Lord Krishna at  Dwarka confederacy.

Therefore, you shall do your respective carved ‘duties’ dutifully’ without any kind of taint whatsoever, unlike ‘today’ concept of living and life.

Those who followed those rules were called that they followed, Rule of Law, unlike today you grant some defacto powers to some so called  representatives whom you  designate them as your ‘Elected Representatives’ (a corrupt form); Corrupt because, ‘Representative ‘ is not unanimously elected by all’ but different persons following ‘different ideologies’, naturally the apple cart of government would ‘wobble’ like a ‘rocking boat’ on river or sea waters, when so hw do you expect them to care your interests is an another paradigm, stated in this thought process.

Note: From this one can clearly note, the people themselves decided things of their culture and civilization is apparent from this read.


Routine Karmas (actions -work) or Meditation cannot help any accomplishments, at all, cannot help if good sons don’t perform their duties in a righteous manner is impressed - we cannot attribute that great kind of duties today's sons do, one needs to know, from this research paper.

Third World:

It is a world of ‘ Knowledge’ ( called ‘shining world of ‘celestials’(otherwise called the Godly world)

Note: One needs to clearly understand -’godliness can be known through unstinted pure knowledge, understanding, and meditation thereafter, and certainly not by no other means such as progeny or sacrifices. It is so because, this God’s world is very very ‘subtle’.

It cannot be acquired by ‘material’, and ‘gross instruments’ or means like ‘son’,  and ‘rituals’

Those who are able to  meditate and understand  the subtle meaning of the ‘Scriptures’ and thus practise meditation,  do attain to the ‘world’  of ‘Gods’ and become identified  with those  ‘shining celestial ones’, by virtue of their PURITY and KNOWLEDGE.

Scriptures speak  of seven  worlds,  of the Celestials - ‘BHUH, BHUVAH, SVAH,MAHAH, JANAH, TAPAH and SATYA. - of which  the first three  are said to be  ‘Mortal’ and the last four ‘Divine’. We will discuss in my next contribution on the scriptural thoughts. (Ends)


dr g balakrishnan 
on 26 September 2016
Published in Constitutional Law
Views : 125
Other Articles by - dr g balakrishnan
Report Abuse


  LAWyersclubindia Menu