17 October 2019
Hi Expert, A father has six sons. Once he has settled two small commercial property in favour of six sons and then without consulting three sons he has revoked within one year(2018 August). Now again those two properties plus one commercial property father has settled to three sons (2019 Oct), leaving other three sons (Earned from Abroad and sent earnings to father since 1990's). Sons are not informed. We belong to Mohammadan Sunnath Sect, not Shia. What is the remedy? Thanks in advance.
18 October 2019
Dear Sir, You may see the following Mohammadan Law. ===================================================================== Dear Sir, Under Muslim law, the concept of ancestral and self-acquired property is not recognised. As long as the person is alive, the property owned by him is his absolute property and no right of any legal heirs accrues until his death. Upon his demise, the legal heirs become entitled to a definite fraction of the estate of the deceased. Under Muslim law, distribution of property can be made in two ways, i.e. per capita or per strip distribution for sunnis and shias respectively. The quantum of their inheritance would depend upon the branch and the number of persons that belong to the branch. Under Muslim laws, the right to claim inheritance may be exercised during the lifetime of the person claiming such right. The rights of the person living in the property for thirty years vis-à-vis that of persons who have not claimed any right to the property would have to be examined in light of the specific facts of the case and the principles governing the Muslim law in India. Rules Governing Inheritance of Property under Muslim Law Under the Indian legislative scheme, the rules that govern inheritance under the Muslim law depend on the kind of property involved. In cases of Non testamentary succcession, the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 gets applied. On the other hand, in case of a person who dies testate i.e. one who has created his will before death, the inheritance is governed under the relevant Muslim Shariat Law as applicable to the Shias and the Sunnis. In cases where the subject matter of property is an immovable property which is situated in the state of West Bengal or comes within the jurisdiction of Madras or Bombay High Court, the Muslims shall be bound by the Indian Succession Act, 1925. This exception is only for the purposes of testamentary succession. It is noteworthy that the Muslim law does not make any strict distinction between any two or more type of properties such as movable and immovable, corporeal and incorporeal etc. Since there is no such distinction between different kinds of properties, therefore, on the event of death of a person, every such property which was within the ambit of ownership of the deceased person shall become a subject matter of inheritance. The amount of property that shall become the subject matter of inheritance and is made available to the legal heirs to inherit shall be determined after making certain appropriations. Such appropriations may include expenses paid in lieu of funeral, debts, legacies, wills etc. After making all these payments, the left over property shall be termed as the inheritable property. Principles governing rules of inheritance of joint or ancestral property Unlike Hindu law, there is no provision of distinction between individual i.e. self acquired or ancestral property. Each and every property that remains within the ownership of an individual can be inherited by his successors. Whenever a Muslim dies, all his property whether acquired by him during his lifetime or inherited from his ancestors can be inherited by his legal heirs. Subsequently, on the death of every such legal heir, his inherited property plus the property acquired by him during his lifetime shall be transferred to his heirs. Birth right The principle of Hindu law of inheritance of Janmaswatvad does not find place in the Muslim law of inheritance. The question of inheritance of property in Muslim law comes only after the death of a person. Any child born into a Muslim family does not get his right to property on his birth. In fact no such person holds becomes a legal heir and therefore holds no right till the time of death of the ancestor. If an heir lives even after the death of the ancestor, he becomes a legal heir and is therefore entitled to a share in property. However, if the apparent heir does not survive his ancestor, then no such right of inheritance or share in the property shall exist.