07 June 2013
Evidence in chief by way of affidavit is duly permissible even in 125 proceeding as it is run like a civil suit.
Allahabad High Court Jagdish Prasad vs Ivth Addl. Sessions Judge And Ors. on 13 February, 1995 Equivalent citations: I (1996) DMC 496 Author: K Sharma Bench: K Sharma JUDGMENT
K.L. Sharma, J.
1. This is a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution of India directed against an order dated 13.6.1994 passed by IV Additional Sessions Judge, Varanasi in Criminal Revision No. 286 of 1993 and another order dated 8.7.1993 passed by the Additional Chief Judicial Magistrate, Varanasi in proceedings for maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. whereby the maintenance at the rate of Rs. 500/- per month was granted to the respondent No. 3.
2. I have heard the learned Counsel for the petitioner Mr. D.R.Singh and the Counsel for the respondent No. 3 Sri V. Singh and perused the material brought on record.
3. Admittedly the petitioner and the respondent No. 3 were married with each other on 7.5.1990 according to Hindu rites and resided together. The respondent No. 3 filed an application for maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. and the petitioner instituted a Civil Suit No. 47 of 1991 in the Court of Civil Judge, Pratapgarh. The civil suit was decreed ex-parte on account of absence of the respondent. According to the petitioner, the respondent No. 3 did not abide by the ex-parte decree for restitution of conjugal rights under Section 9 of Hindu Marriage Act and prosecuted her application for maintenance in Case No. 242 of 1992 in the Court of X Addl. Chief Judicial Magistrate, Varanasi. The proceedings were held ex-parte and the application was allowed on 8.7.1993 by granting maintenance at the rate of Rs. 500/- per month from the date of application. A criminal revision filed against the order of maintenance was dismissed by the IV Additional Sessions Judge, Varanasi and the order of maintenance was maintained.
4. Learned Counsel for the petitioner has contended that the impugned order of maintenance passed by the learned Magistrate was illegal on the ground that the procedure prescribed by Section 126 Cr.P.C. was not followed and instead, the affidavit which was not an evidence was accepted and relied upon as evidence and the order of maintenance could not have been passed in view of the decree of the Civil Court for restitution of conjugal rights. Learned Counsel for the contesting respondent No. 3 has replied that the impugned orders do not suffer from such illegalities as contended.
5. As regards the contention relating to the failure of the Magistrate to observe the prescribed procedure, the relevant provision is contained in Sub- section (2) of Section 126 of the Code which reads as follows :
(2) All evidence in such proceedings shall be taken in the presence of the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made, or, when his personal attendance is dispensed with, in the presence of his pleader, and shall be recorded in the manner prescribed for summons-cases.
Provided that if the Magistrate is satisfied that the person against whom an order for payment of maintenance is proposed to be made is wilfully avoiding service, or wilfully neglecting to attend the Court, the Magistrate may proceed to hear and determine the case ex-parte and any order so made may be set aside for good cause shown on an application made within three months from the date thereof subject to such terms including terms as to payment of costs to the opposite party as the Magistrate may think just and proper."
6. It is apparent from this provision that in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. the manner of recording the evidence in the presence of the opposite party or of his pleader will be the same as prescribed for summons cases. Section 254 of the Code of Criminal Procedure provides that the Magistrate shall proceed to hear the prosecution and take all such evidence as may be produced in support of the prosecution and also to hear the accused and take all such evidence as he produces in his defence. It further provides that the Magistrate may if he thinks fit, on the application of the prosecution or the accused issue a summons to any witness directing him to attend or to produce any document or other thing. It further provides that the reasonable expenses of the witness incurred in attending for the purposes of the trial may be got deposited in the Court before summoning of the witness. Section 274 requires the Magistrate to make a memorandum of the substance of the evidence of each witness as the examination proceeds in the language of the Court, and if he is unable to do so he may cause such memorandum to be made in writing or from his dictation in open Court and sign the memorandum which shall form part of the record. It simply provides that the Magistrate shall record all such evidence as may be produced by the prosecution as well as by the accused. All this procedure can be adopted when the opposite party in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. is either personally present or represented by his pleader. But if the opposite party absents himself and no pleader appears on his behalf, the manner for recording of the evidence as required for summons cases need not be resorted to. In the ex-parte proceedings, the Magistrate under the proviso to Sub-section (2) has to satisfy himself that the opposite party is wilfully avoiding service and wilfully neglecting to attend the Court. On his satisfaction the Magistrate may proceed to hear and determine the case ex-parte. In such ex-parte proceed ings the Magistrate has got the discretion either to record the statement of the applicant and the witness on oath or direct or permit them to file affidavits before the Court. There is no illegality if the learned Magistrate either directs or permits the applicant or any witness to file an affidavit in proof of the facts contained in the application under Section 125 Cr.P.C. If the opposite party appears he can have the right of cross examination of the deponent in respect of the averments made in the affidavit. But if he does not appear, there is no illegality in relying upon the affidavit as the evidence.
7. As regards the contention that an affidavit is not an evidence, the learned Counsel for the petitioner cited a decision of the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the case Smt. Sudha Devi v. M.P. Narayanan, 1988 Rent Cases 316 (S.C. Full Bench). In this case an affidavit was filed before the Supreme Court by way of evidence. It was held that such an affidavit cannot be allowed to be filed for filling up the lacunae. It was further observed that an affidavit is not an evidence within the meaning of Section 3 of the Evidence Act, 1872 unless for reasons Court passes an order under Order XIX Rules 1 and 2 C.P.C. This was a special appeal under decision of the Hon'ble Supreme Court against an ex-parte decree. An affidavit was filed in order to fill up the lacunae withoutany direction or permission of the Court. It was a civil matter governed by the procedure of the Code of Civil Procedure. An affidavit by itself does not become an evidence within the meaning of Section 3 of the Indian Evidence Act. However the Court has been given power either to permit or call for an affidavit by way of evidence.
8. Section 3 of the Indian Evidence Act defines the word 'evidence' as follows:
"Evidence" : "Evidence" means and includes-
(1) All statements which the Court permits or requires to be made before it by witnesses in relation to matters of fact under inquiry, such statements are called oral evidence;
(2) All documents produced for the inspection of the Court; such documents are called documentary evidence.
9. Affidavit is a statement of a person either on oath or on affirmation. If the Court permits such a statement to be given by a witness in relation to matters of fact under enquiry, such a statement is called oral evidence. The Court has also got powers under Order XIX C.P.C. in civil matters to direct a witness to file an affidavit in relation to matters of fact under inquiry. In criminal proceedings also, the Code of Criminal Procedure empowers the Court to require a witness to file an affidavit in relation to matters of fact under inquiry. Sections 295 and 296 of the Cr.P.C empower the Court in the course of inquiry, trial or other proceeding under the Code requiring evidence of the facts to be given by an affidavit. Section 296 gives the general power to the Court with the rider that if an application is given by the prosecution or the accused, the Court shall summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. Being thus empowered by law the Court has got the discretion either to permit or require a witness to file an affidavit in relation to matters of facts under inquiry, trial or other proceedings. In case the Court neither requires nor permits by any specific order expressly recorded, but actually receives an affidavit of a party or a witness as an evidence in a proceeding, the Court is deemed to have exercised its discretion impliedly. It is still in the discretion of the Court either to rely upon or reject an affidavit submitted as an evidence by way of proof of the matters of fact under inquiry, trial or proceeding. This position would be evident from a perusal of the proceedings and the judgments of the Court whether any permission or the direction was given expressly to file an affidavit or the affidavit was accepted impliedly as an evidence and it was relied upon or rejected. In ex-parte proceed ings the Court generally permits or directs party concerned or his witness to file an affidavit as evidence to prove the facts contained in the application or the petition and proceeds to decide the matter on that basis, obviously because the other party has been absenting or is not available to challenge the facts contained in the affidavit made on oath or affirmation, and, even if the opposite party appears at a later stage, he has got an opportunity for cross examining the deponent on his application to the Court. In this procedure also the interest of justice is well protected and the valuable time of the Court, which could have been otherwise wasted in the recording of evidence or memorandum of the evidence of the applicant or the petitioner, and/or the witnesses, would be saved and would be utilised for hearing of other matters awaiting their turn.
10. The proviso to Sub-section (2) of Section 126 makes an exception to the Sub-section (2) and does not oblige the Magistrate to record the evidence in the manner prescribed for summons cases; in view of the special situation that the opposite party has been absenting, neglecting or wilfully avoiding participation in the case. Therefore, an affidavit in such ex-parte proceedings by way of evidence is permissible in law. The learned Counsel for the petitioner has submitted that the evidence of the applicant or of any witness in proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. cannot be treated as evidence of formal character under Section 296 of the Code. The question whether the eivdence is of formal character or not has to be answered on the basis of facts and circumstances of each case. Even this Section 296 of the code which permits the evidence of a person whose evidence is of formal character by affidavit, makes it subject to all just exceptions for being read in evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceedings under this Code. Besides just exceptions, Sub-section (2)of Section 296 itself provides that the Court shall on the application of the prosecution or the accused summon and examine any such person as to the facts contained in his affidavit. Section 297 which specifies the authorities before whom affidavits can be sworn or affirmed also provides that the affidavits shall be confined to and shall state separately, such facts as the deponent is able to prove from his own knowledge and such facts as he has reasonable ground to believe to be true, and in the latter case, the deponent shall clearly state the grounds of such belief. Sub-section (3) or Section 297 empowers the Court to order any scandalous and irrelevant matter in the affidavit to be struck out or amended. In ex-parte proceedings where the other party has been absenting or neglecting or avoiding wilfully participation in the proceedings, the evidence required from the applicant to prove the facts contained in the application becomes a formality. Even if the affidavit is not permitted, the Court shall record only examination in chief on oath or affirmation of the applicant, or and the witnesses, in a mechanical manner as the other party is not present and no cross examination is called for. If in this circumstance, the Court exercising its discretionary power in the interest of speedy disposal receives an affidavit of the applicant or the witness by way of evidence in proof of the matters of fact contained in the application it does not contravene any specific provision of law or defeat the advancement of interest of justice. Therefore, in my opinion the evidence in ex-parte proceedings becomes a matter of formality to be observed by the applicant. If the Court permits or directs the applicant or the witnesses expressly or impliedly or even receives affidavits in proof of facts contained in the application there is no illegality.
11. The learned Counsel for the petitioner contended that the application for maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. was not maintainable in view of the decree for restitution of conjugal rights passed by the Civil Court under Section 9 of Hindu Marriage Act. In support of his contention he has invited my attention to a decision of the Single Judge of Rajasthan High Court Smt. Geeta Kumari v. Shiv Charon Das, 1975 Cr.L.J. 137 (2); a decision of a Single Judge of Punjab and Haryana High Court in the case of Teja Singh v. Smt. Chhoto, 1981 Crl.L.J. 1467 and decisions of Allahabad High Court in the case of Mohd. Siddique v. Mst. Jubeda Khatoon, A.I.R. (139) 1952 Allahabad (L.B.) 616; and in the case of Ravendra Kumar v. Achant Swaroop, AIR 1966 All. 133. In the case of Smt. Geeta Kumari (supra), it was held on the facts and circumstances of that case that since the wife was persistently disobeying the decree for restitution of conjugal rights granted by the Civil Court, she was not entitled to maintenance. The learned Judge relied upon a decision of this Court in the case of Mohd. Siddique (supra). In the case of Teja Singh (supra) on the facts and circumstances of that case and in view of Sub-section (4) of Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure that the wife whose application under Section 9 of Hindu Marriage Act had already been dismissed on the ground that she had herself deserted her husband, she was not entitled to maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. In the case of Ravendra Kumar (supra) it was held on the facts and circumstances of that case that the wife was not entitled to receive maintenance allowance from the husband as the Magistrate was bound to take note of the decision of the Civil Court as provided under Section 489(2) of Cr.P.C, even though there was no specific application under that section before him.
12. The proposition of law is that the Magistrate has discretion under the section to pass an order for maintenance but that discertion must be exercised upon judicial principles and it is not in accordance with sound judicial principles to compel a husband to maintain a wife who contumaciously refused to obey the order or decree of a Civil Court in a suit passed against the wife for restitution of conjugal rights directing her to live with her husband. The Criminal Court cannot inquire into any allegation of failure or neglect to maintain prior to such decision. In all these cases the decisions have been rendered in view of the facts and circumstances coming before that Court.
13. In the present case, the chequered history of the litigation between the husband and the wife reveals the following material dates and the facts. The marriage was admittedly solemnised on 7.5.1990. According to the petitioner his wife Smt. Suman Devi left his house on or before 8.12.1990, but according to the wife she was turned out by her husband on 13.1.1991. According to the petitioner he sent a notice on 8.2.1991 to his wife to return to his house. But Smt. Suman Devi filed an application for maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. at Varanasi on 15.2.1991. The husband filed Civil Suit No. 47 of 1991 under Section 9 of Hindu Marriage Act in the Court of Civil Judge, Pratapgarh on 20.1.1991. This civil suit was decreed ex-parte against the wife on 29.7.1991. The petitioner husband filed his written statement on 20.9.1991 in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. before the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Varanasi. The wife filed an application for setting aside the ex-parte decree under Order IX, Rule 13 C.P.C. on 28.7.1992. Thereupon the restoration application filed by the wife before the Civil Judge Pratapgarh was rejected on 17.4.1993, and the execution case in respect of the ex-parte decree was also decided on the same date. But the petitioner husband absented himself and did not appear before the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Varanasi to contest the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. and consequently after several adjournments suo motu granted by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. were decided ex-parte on 8.7.1993. The petitioner husband filed Criminal Revision No. 286 of 1993 against the order of maintenance and stay application in this revision was heard and rejected by IV Additional Sessions Judge, Varanasi on 9.9.1993. The petitioner husband filed a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution of India against the order of maintenance which was dismissed by this Court on 27.10.1993 on the ground that the criminal revision was pending. The revision was dismissed by the learned Additional Sessions Judge after hearing the parties on 13.6.1994. The learned Civil Judge Pratapgarh dismissed the objections of Smt. Suman Devi in the execution case on 29.10.1994. Thereafter the petitioner husband filed the present writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution of India on 1.11.1994.
14. It is apparent that the decree for restitution of conjugal rights under Section 9 of Hindu Marriage Act was passed ex-parte and when the wife came to know thereof more than a year after her application under Section 125 Cr.P.C. she filed an application for setting aside the decree, but she could not succeed in getting the ex-parte decree set aside. Her objection in the execution thereof as to why she was unable to comply with the decree for restitution of conjugal rights, was also rejected by the learned Civil Judge. The learned Magistrate granted indulgence on several dates by suo motu adjourning the case with an intention to hear the husband and decide the matter of maintenance on merits. But merely by filing a written statement and a copy of the ex-parte decree of restitution of conjugal rights, the husband neglected to contest the proceedings and proceeded to get the ex-parte decree executed but at no stage the finding of fact as to why the wife was refusing to live with the husband was recorded on merit. The judicial principle is that if a finding of fact is recorded by the competent Civil Court on merit after hearing both the parties and a decree of restitution of conjugal rights is passed rejecting the ground of the wife to live separately, then the Magistrate is obliged in his judicial discretion to abide by the decree passed on merit and not to further inquire into the ground whether the husband has neglected or refused to maintain his wife or the wife has reasonable and sufficient cause for living separately. In the facts and circumstances of the present case, a perusal of the order sheet of the proceedings conducted by the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Varanasi makes out clearly that it was the husband who himself compelled the Court to proceed against him and pass an order of maintenance ex-parte whereas in the suit for restitution of conjugal rights filed subsequently and decreed without knowledge of the wife, it was the wife who filed the application for setting aside the ex-parte decree and wanted to be heard by restoration of the suit, but somehow she was not allowed that opportunity and was not heard on her objection. Even in the execution proceedings she was not allowed. According to the judicial principle, the Magistrate cannot enquire into the circumstances of refusal to live with the husband or separately prior to the decision of the Civil Court, but the Magistrate can in his discretion determine the circumstances subsequent to the decision of the Civil Court as to why the wife is persistently refusing to live together with the husband and as to why she wants to live separately. The relationship of husband and wife is very delicate and depends upon the cordiality and good intention of both the parties. If the intention of either of the two is not good and such circumstances are created that are no conducive to the cordial living between the two and can create danger or threat or can give rise to any apprehension, the other party can lawfully refuse to live together and there may be a sufficient ground for the other party to live separately. If the finding of fact is based on adjudication of the merits of the case by hearing the version of both the parties and on examining the evidence adduced by both the parties, the Magistrate is obliged to accept the findings but in the absence thereof or in other words in the case of ex-parte decision, the Magistrate can exercise his judicial discretion to determine the facts for the limited purpose of granting the maintenance on a crucial date for a particular period. This order of maintenance is not applicable for all times to come. With this view, provisions have been made under Section 127 for alteration of the allowance and the Magistrate has been invested with the power to vary or even to cancel the order of maintenance. This provision remains intact and the Magistrate's power is not affected even by the final decision of the highest Court in proceedings arising out of the order of maintenance passed under Section 125 Cr.P.C.
15. The Bombay High Court has held in the case of Rahim Bi v. Mohd. Rahim Khan, (1985) 2 A.I. Cri.L.R. 355 (Bombay), that a decree in favour of the husband does not ipso facto nullify the order of maintenance. The Gujarat High Court held in the cases of Harish Mansukh Lal v. Hansha Gauri Ram Shankar, 1981 XXII Gujarat L.R. 1223 that a decree for restitution of conjugal rights in favour of the husband only grants him a right to get the order of maintenance cancelled.
16. Considering the facts and circumstances of the case, I am of the opinion that since the ground alleged by the wife for her maintenance has not been adjudicated on merit by the Civil Court, the finding recorded in ex-parte proceedings by the Civil Court was not finally binding on the Magistrate in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. and the Magistrate had a judicial discretion to inquire into the same and take a decision in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. The fault lay with the husband who did not actually contest the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. even after filing written statement and a copy of the ex-parte decree for restitution of conjugal rights. On the other hand, the wife not only prosecuted her application under Section 125 Cr.P.C but also took positive steps in getting an opportunity to contest the ex-parte decree after coming to know thereof about a year later but on technical ground the learned Civil Judge did not set aside the ex-parte decree and did not restore the suit for hearing on merits. The change of circumstances and reasons could be very well inquired into not only by the Civil Court at the appropriate stage but also by the Magistrate in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. If either of the two has done it on a crucial date, the other cannot do it again. But if it has not been done, the proceeding has to be decided on its own merit.
17. For the aforesaid reasons, I do not find any substance in the contentions raised by the learned Counsel for the petitioner. No ground has been made out to call for any interference by this Court in its extraordinary writ jurisdiction. The petitioner husband has still got a remedy under Section 127 Cr.P.C. to get the order of maintenance varied or cancelled according to the change of circumstances and reasons. However, by making this observation this Court does not intend to permit the petitioner husband to prolong the undesirable litigation with the wife and it would be in the fitness of things and in their interest that they mutually decide their long drawn dispute since the year 1990.
18. I do not consider proper to make any order as to costs. The writ petition is hereby dismissed.
08 June 2013
Evidence (Examination in chief) of APPLICANT by way of affidavit in 125 crpc APPLICATION is permissible as per law. Being Quasi civil + criminal Ni Complaint/ No Petition, / No accused/ No warrant or summon. It is Application
19 December 2013
"The proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. are quasi civil proceedings and are summary in nature, therefore, evidence on affidavit can be taken in ex-parte as well as contested matters."
CRIMINAL REVISION No. - 480 of 2010
Petitioner :- Suneel Dua Respondent :- State Of U.P. & Another Petitioner Counsel :- Ashok Kumar Sharma Respondent Counsel :- Govt. Advocate,Rakesh Dubey
Hon'ble Aditya Nath Mittal,J. Heard learned counsel for the revisionist, learned A.G.A. and learned counsel appearing for opposite party no.2. This criminal revision has been filed against order dated 21.11.2009 passed by Principal Judge, Family Court, Kanpur Nagar, by which the application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. has been rejected. Ex-parte order dated 14.8.2006 passed under Section 125 Cr.P.C. has also been challenged. Learned counsel for the revisionist has submitted that the revisionist was never served with the notice for the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. and when it came to the knowledge of the revisionist, he had moved an application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. for setting aside the said order. It has also been submitted that in the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C., the evidence on affidavit cannot be recorded, therefore, the court below has committed illegality in passing the order of maintenance on the basis of affidavit. Learned counsel for the opposite party no.2 has submitted that the revisionist was served sufficiently during the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. and despite of sufficient service, the revisionist had not appeared before the court below. It has also been submitted that in the application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C., the ground of evidence on affidavit was not taken, therefore, this ground cannot be taken for the first time in the revision. The opposite party no.2 had submitted an application before the Principal Judge, Family Court, Kanpur Nagar alleging that she was married to revisionist on 27.4.1996 at Kanpur but the revisionist always committed cruelty with her and she was left to her parental home in the year 1998 after which he had not taken any care of her. Notice dated 18.12.2002 was also served upon the revisionist which was also not answered, therefore, the petition for maintenance under Section 125 Cr.P.C. was filed in the year 2003. Despite of alleged service, the revisionist had not appeared before the court below, therefore, the order dated 14.8.2006 was passed ex-parte and the opposite party no.2 was granted maintenance of Rs.1,000/- per month from the date of application. The said order was challenged under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. on the ground that the revisionist was not served and the opposite party no.2 had given incorrect address. It was also prayed that delay in filing the application may be condoned. After hearing both the parties, learned court below came to the conclusion that the revisionist was served sufficiently and despite of sufficient service he has not appeared before the court. It was also found that both the addresses furnished by the opposite party no.2 were correct, therefore, the application under Section 5 of Limitation Act as well as the application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. were rejected. As far as the service of notice regarding proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. is concerned, it has been found that both the addresses given by the opposite party no.2 were correct upon which the notices through registered post were sent and as per report of the post office, both the notices were served upon the revisionist. Apart from it, the notice through Police Constable was also served by refusal upon the revisionist. In counter affidavit the photo copy of service of notice have been annexed which reveals that the Police Constable had gone to the address mentioned on the notice where the revisionist had met him and he had refused to take the notice. Learned court below in its order dated 21.11.2009 has discussed categorically all aspects of the matter in detail and has come to the conclusion that both the addresses of the revisionist were correct and the service was effected on both the addresses, therefore, it was not believed that notice upon revisionist was not served. Consequently, the application under Section 126(2) was found to be barred by limitation and was rejected. Learned court below has taken all aspects of the matter into consideration regarding the service of notice upon the revisionist and it has been proved by the documentary evidence that the notices were duly served upon the revisionist and he had not appeared before the court below to attend the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. I do not find any error of law or perversity in the impugned order dated 21.11.2009. As far as the argument that evidence on affidavit is not permissible under the Code of Criminal Procedure, therefore, the proceedings are nonest, learned counsel for the opposite party no.2 has submitted that this ground was not taken while moving application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. Section 125 Cr.P.C. provides a speedy remedy by summary procedure to enforce liability in order to avoid vagrancy. Section 125 Cr.P.C. gives effect to the natural and fundamental duty of a man to maintain his wife, children and parents so long as they are unable to maintain themselves. The proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. are quasi civil proceedings. In the present case the opposite party no.2 had filed the affidavit of herself and her brother by which the averments of the application under Section 125 Cr.P.C. were reiterated. The marriage card in original was also submitted. At this stage also the revisionist has not denied the marriage with opposite party no.2 in the year 1996. Because the proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. are quasi civil proceedings and are summary in nature, therefore, evidence on affidavit can be taken in ex-parte as well as contested matters. As far as the contested matters are concerned, the other party should be given an opportunity to cross-examine the deponent but in the ex-parte proceedings, the court can believe the affidavit in evidence, therefore, I do not find any illegality in relying the affidavits of opposite party no.2 and her brother in ex-parte proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. It is also true that this ground has been taken for the first time in this revision and this ground was not taken in the application under Section 126(2) Cr.P.C. I do not find any illegality or error of law in believing the evidence on affidavit in the ex-parte proceedings under Section 125 Cr.P.C. For the facts and circumstances mentioned, above, I do not find any error of law in the impugned order. The revision is dismissed. Order Date :- 8.4.2013